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1.  Reproductive windows, genetic loci and breast cancer risk. 
Annals of epidemiology  2014;24(5):376-382.
The reproductive windows between age at menarche and first childbirth (standardized AFB) and from menarche to menopause (reproductive lifespan) may interact with genetic variants in association with breast cancer risk.
We assessed this hypothesis in 6131 breast cancer cases and 7274 controls who participated in the population-based Collaborative Breast Cancer Study. Risk factor information was collected through telephone interviews and DNA samples were collected on a sub-sample (N=1484 cases, 1307 controls) to genotype for 13 genome-wide association study-identified loci. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and P-values for the interaction between reproductive windows and genotypes were obtained by adding cross-product terms to statistical models.
For standardized AFB, the OR was 1.52 (CI:1.36-1.71) comparing the highest to lowest quintile. Carrier status for rs10941679 (5p12) and rs10483813 (RAD51B) appeared to modify this relationship (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively). For reproductive lifespan, the OR comparing the highest and lowest quintiles was 1.62 (CI:1.35-1.95). No interactions were detected between genotype and reproductive lifespan (all P>0.05). All results were similar regardless of ductal versus lobular breast cancer subtype.
Our results suggest reproductive windows are associated with breast cancer risk, and that associations may vary by genetic variants.
PMCID: PMC4164346  PMID: 24792587
breast neoplasms; epidemiology; menarche; menopause; genetic loci; histology
Annals of epidemiology  2013;24(3):214-221.
Pathways by which the social and built environments affect health can be influenced by differences between perception and reality. This discordance is an important for understanding health impacts of the built environment. This study examines associations between perceived and objective measures of 12 non-residential destinations, as well as previously unexplored sociodemographic, lifestyle, neighborhood and urbanicity predictors of discordance.
Perceived neighborhood data were collected from participants of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), using a self-administered questionnaire. Objective data were collected using the Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment, an audit-based instrument assessing built environment features around each participant’s residence.
Overall, there was relatively high agreement, ranging from 50% for proximity to parks to >90% for golf courses. Education, positive neighborhood perceptions, and rurality were negatively associated with discordance. Associations between discordance and depression, disease status, and lifestyle factors appeared to be modified by urbanicity level.
These data show perceived and objective neighborhood environment data are not interchangeable and the level of discordance is associated with or modified by individual and neighborhood factors, including level of urbanicity. These results suggest that consideration should be given to including both types of measures in future studies.
PMCID: PMC3947547  PMID: 24467991
Epidemiological methods; Environment Design; Obesity; Perception; Validity (Epidemiology); Rural Population; Urban Population
3.  Duration of Physical Activity and Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Status of Postmenopausal Women 
Annals of epidemiology  2011;21(6):440-449.
To investigate whether the association between physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations is independent of sun exposure, body size, and other potential explanatory variables.
Using data from a sample of 1,343 postmenopausal women, from the Women’s Health Initiative, linear regression was used to examine the associations of duration (minutes/week) of recreational activity and of yard work with 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L).
In age-adjusted analyses, positive associations were observed between 25(OH)D concentrations and both duration of recreational physical activity (β=0.71, SE(0.09), P<0.001) and yard work (β=0.36, SE(0.10), P=0.004). After further adjustment for vitamin D intake, self-reported sunlight exposure, waist circumference, and season of blood draw, 25(OH)D was significantly associated with recreational activity (β=0.21, SE(0.09), P=0.014) but not with yard work (β=0.18, SE(0.09), P=0.061). Interactions were observed between season and both recreational activity (Pinteraction=0.082) and yard work (Pinteraction=0.038) such that these activity-25(OH)D associations were greater during summer/fall compared to winter/spring. Self-reported sunlight exposure and measures of body size did not modify the associations.
The observed age-adjusted activity-25(OH)D associations were attenuated after adjusting for explanatory variables and were modified by season of blood draw. Adopting a lifestyle that incorporates outdoor physical activity during summer/fall, consuming recommended amounts of vitamin D, and maintaining a healthy weight may improve or maintain vitamin D status in postmenopausal women.
PMCID: PMC3090482  PMID: 21414803
25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D; serum; sunlight exposure; physical activity; epidemiology; women

Results 1-3 (3)