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1.  Formin follows function: a muscle-specific isoform of FHOD3 is regulated by CK2 phosphorylation and promotes myofibril maintenance 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2010;191(6):1159-1172.
Phosphorylation of the muscle-specific formin splice variant FHOD3 by CK2 regulates its stability, myofibril targeting, and myofibril integrity.
Members of the formin family are important for actin filament nucleation and elongation. We have identified a novel striated muscle–specific splice variant of the formin FHOD3 that introduces a casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylation site. The specific targeting of muscle FHOD3 to the myofibrils in cardiomyocytes is abolished in phosphomutants or by the inhibition of CK2. Phosphorylation of muscle FHOD3 also prevents its interaction with p62/sequestosome 1 and its recruitment to autophagosomes. Furthermore, we show that muscle FHOD3 efficiently promotes the polymerization of actin filaments in cardiomyocytes and that the down-regulation of its expression severely affects myofibril integrity. In murine and human cardiomyopathy, we observe reduced FHOD3 expression with a concomitant isoform switch and change of subcellular targeting. Collectively, our data suggest that a muscle-specific isoform of FHOD3 is required for the maintenance of the contractile structures in heart muscle and that its function is regulated by posttranslational modification.
doi:10.1083/jcb.201005060
PMCID: PMC3002041  PMID: 21149568
2.  Obscurin, a giant sarcomeric Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein involved in sarcomere assembly 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2001;154(1):123-136.
Vertebrate-striated muscle is assumed to owe its remarkable order to the molecular ruler functions of the giant modular signaling proteins, titin and nebulin. It was believed that these two proteins represented unique results of protein evolution in vertebrate muscle. In this paper we report the identification of a third giant protein from vertebrate muscle, obscurin, encoded on chromosome 1q42. Obscurin is ∼800 kD and is expressed specifically in skeletal and cardiac muscle. The complete cDNA sequence of obscurin reveals a modular architecture, consisting of >67 intracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)- or fibronectin-3–like domains with multiple splice variants. A large region of obscurin shows a modular architecture of tandem Ig domains reminiscent of the elastic region of titin. The COOH-terminal region of obscurin interacts via two specific Ig-like domains with the NH2-terminal Z-disk region of titin. Both proteins coassemble during myofibrillogenesis. During the progression of myofibrillogenesis, all obscurin epitopes become detectable at the M band. The presence of a calmodulin-binding IQ motif, and a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain in the COOH-terminal region suggest that obscurin is involved in Ca2+/calmodulin, as well as G protein–coupled signal transduction in the sarcomere.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200102110
PMCID: PMC2196875  PMID: 11448995
obscurin; Rho GTPases; GEF proteins; myofibril; heart muscle
3.  Alterations at the Intercalated Disk Associated with the Absence of Muscle Lim Protein 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2001;153(4):763-772.
In this study, we investigated cardiomyocyte cytoarchitecture in a mouse model for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the muscle LIM protein (MLP) knockout mouse and substantiated several observations in a second DCM model, the tropomodulin-overexpressing transgenic (TOT) mouse. Freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from both strains are characterized by a more irregular shape compared with wild-type cells. Alterations are observed at the intercalated disks, the specialized areas of mechanical coupling between cardiomyocytes, whereas the subcellular organization of contractile proteins in the sarcomeres of MLP knockout mice appears unchanged. Distinct parts of the intercalated disks are affected differently. Components from the adherens junctions are upregulated, desmosomal proteins are unchanged, and gap junction proteins are downregulated. In addition, the expression of N-RAP, a LIM domain– containing protein located at the intercalated disks, is upregulated in MLP knockout as well as in TOT mice. Detailed analysis of intercalated disk composition during postnatal development reveals that an upregulation of N-RAP expression might serve as an early marker for the development of DCM. Altered expression levels of cytoskeletal proteins (either the lack of MLP or an increased expression of tropomodulin) apparently lead to impaired function of the myofibrillar apparatus and to physiological stress that ultimately results in DCM and is accompanied by an altered appearance and composition of the intercalated disks.
PMCID: PMC2192386  PMID: 11352937
dilated cardiomyopathy; N-RAP; tropomodulin; adherens junction; gap junction
4.  Dral Is a P53-Responsive Gene Whose Four and a Half Lim Domain Protein Product Induces Apoptosis 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2000;151(3):495-506.
DRAL is a four and a half LIM domain protein identified because of its differential expression between normal human myoblasts and the malignant counterparts, rhabdomyosarcoma cells. In the current study, we demonstrate that transcription of the DRAL gene can be stimulated by p53, since transient expression of functional p53 in rhabdomyosarcoma cells as well as stimulation of endogenous p53 by ionizing radiation in wild-type cells enhances DRAL mRNA levels. In support of these observations, five potential p53 target sites could be identified in the promoter region of the human DRAL gene. To obtain insight into the possible functions of DRAL, ectopic expression experiments were performed. Interestingly, DRAL expression efficiently triggered apoptosis in three cell lines of different origin to the extent that no cells could be generated that stably overexpressed this protein. However, transient transfection experiments as well as immunofluorescence staining of the endogenous protein allowed for the localization of DRAL in different cellular compartments, namely cytoplasm, nucleus, focal contacts, as well as Z-discs and to a lesser extent the M-bands in cardiac myofibrils. These data suggest that downregulation of DRAL might be involved in tumor development. Furthermore, DRAL expression might be important for heart function.
PMCID: PMC2185594  PMID: 11062252
LIM domain protein; transcriptional regulation; p53; apoptosis; subcellular localization

Results 1-4 (4)