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1.  Factors Associated with Arterial Vascular Events in PROFILE: A Multiethnic Lupus Cohort 
Lupus  2009;18(11):958-965.
The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with the occurrence of arterial vascular events in a multiethnic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort. The PROFILE cohort, comprised of SLE patients (n=1,333) of defined ethnicity from five different U.S. institutions, was studied to determine demographic, clinical and biological variables associated with vascular events. An arterial vascular event (first episode) was either a myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and/or a vascular procedure for myocardial infarction, stroke, claudication and/or evidence of gangrene. Patient characteristics were analyzed by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. One-hundred twenty-three (9.8%) patients had at least one incident arterial event. Age at cohort enrollment (HR= 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.06), smoking (HR= 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46), and the CRP2* C alleles (HR= 1.91, 95%CI 1.04-3.49) were associated with a shorter time-to-the occurrence of arterial vascular events. Some clinical manifestations of disease activity were associated with a shorter time-to-occurrence [psychosis (HR= 2.21, 95% CI 1.10-4.44), seizures (HR= 1.85, 95% CI 1.00-3.24) and anemia (HR= 1.83, 95% CI 1.02-3.31)], but others were not [arthritis (HR= 0.32, 95% CI 0.18-0.58)]. In conclusion, older patients, especially in the context of a predisposing environmental factor (smoking) and severe clinical manifestations, are at higher risk of having arterial vascular events. The genetic contribution of the variation at the CRP locus was not obscured by demographic or clinical variables. Awareness of these factors should lead to more effective management strategies of patients at risk for arterial vascular events.
PMCID: PMC2846757  PMID: 19762396
Lupus  2008;17(3):177-184.
The objective of this study was to determine risk factors predicting seizures and damage due to seizures in a multi-ethnic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort (PROFILE) which includes SLE patients (n=1295) from five different US institutions. Only patients with seizures after SLE diagnosis (incident) were included in the analyses of clinical seizures, 80/1295, 6.2%; but all patients (prevalent and incident) in the analyses of damage due to seizures 51/1295, 3.9%. We examined socioeconomic-demographic, clinical and genetic variables predictive of clinical seizures and damage from seizures by Cox Proportional Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Independent predictors of a shorter time to occurrence of clinical seizures were younger age (HR=1.0; 95% CI 0.9–1.0), having Hispanic-Texan ethnicity (HR=2.7; 95% CI 1.3–5.7) or African-American ethnicity (HR=1.8; 95% CI 1.0–3.1, and the prior occurrence of a cerebrovascular accident [CVA] (HR=3.3; 95% CI 1.6–7.1) or an episode of psychosis (HR=2.4; 95% CI 1.1–5.0), while the prior occurrence of photosensitivity (HR=0.5; 95% CI 0.3–0.9).was the only independent predictor of a longer time to the clinical occurrence of seizures Independent predictors of a shorter time to occurrence of damage due to seizures were younger age (HR=1.0 95% CI 0.9–1.0), male gender (HR=2.4; 95% CI 1.1–5.4), and the occurrence of a prior CVA (HR=2.7; 95% CI 1.0–7.0 or an episode of psychosis (HR=4.7; 95% CI 2.3–9.9). No allele from the candidate genes examined (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, FCGR2A, FCGR3A, or FCG3B) predicted clinical seizures or damage due to seizures.
PMCID: PMC2787620  PMID: 18372357

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