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1.  Persistence of specific bactericidal antibodies at 5 years of age after vaccination against serogroup B meningococcus in infancy and at 40 months 
Background:
The multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal (4CMenB) vaccine induces antibodies against indicator strains of serogroup B meningococcus under various schedules. We investigated the persistence of antibodies in 5-year-old children 18–20 months after their last dose (at about 3.5 years of age).
Methods:
We assessed 5-year-old children who received the 4CMenB vaccine or a recombinant protein vaccine in a previous randomized trial. We also recruited 50 vaccine-naive 5-year-olds and administered 2 doses of 4CMenB to each child. We measured serum bactericidal antibody titres against 4 indicator strains of serogroup B meningococcus matched to each individual vaccine component and against 4 mismatched strains.
Results:
Of those who received the 4CMenB vaccine at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 40 months (n = 16), the percentage with protective antibody titres (≥ 1:4) at 60 months ranged from 44% to 88% against matched strains and from 13% to 81% against mismatched strains. Loss of protective titres was also observed for those who received the 4CMenB vaccine at 12, 40 and 42 months (n = 5) (80%–100% against matched strains, 60%–100% against mismatched strains) or at 40 and 42 months (n = 29) (31%–100% against matched strains, 41%–81% against mismatched strains). Administering the 4CMenB vaccine to 5-year-old children yielded protective titres against matched strains in 92%–100% and against mismatched strains in 59%–100%. The majority of these children reported injection-site pain (40/50 [80%] after dose 1, 39/46 [85%] after dose 2) and erythema (47/50 [94%] and 40/46 [87%], respectively); rates of fever were low (5/50 [10%] and 2/46 [4%], respectively).
Interpretation:
Waning of immunity by 5 years of age occurred after receipt of the 4CMenB vaccine in infancy, even with an additional booster at 40 months. The 4CMenB vaccine is immunogenic and was fairly well tolerated by 5-year-old children, although injection-site pain was noteworthy. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01027351
doi:10.1503/cmaj.141200
PMCID: PMC4401613  PMID: 25802309
2.  A Multi-Component Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine (4CMenB): The Clinical Development Program 
Drugs  2013;74(1):15-30.
Recently approved in Europe and Australia, the multi-component meningococcal B vaccine, 4CMenB (Bexsero®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics), contains three surface-exposed recombinant proteins (fHbp, NadA, and NHBA) and New Zealand strain outer membrane vesicles (NZ OMV) with PorA 1.4 antigenicity. This comprehensive review of the 4CMenB clinical development program covers pivotal phase I/IIb/III studies in over 7,000 adults, adolescents, and infants. The immunological correlate for clinical protection used was human complement-mediated serum bactericidal activity titers ≥4 or 5 against indicator strains for individual antigens. Based on achievement of protective titers, a four-dose schedule (three primary doses and one booster dose) for infants and a two-dose schedule for adolescents provided the best results. Observed increases in injection site pain/tenderness and fever in infants, and injection site pain, malaise, and headache in adolescents compared with routine vaccines, were mostly mild to moderate; frequencies of rare events (Kawasaki disease, juvenile arthritis) were not significantly different from non-vaccinated individuals. 4CMenB is conservatively estimated to provide 66–91 % coverage against meningococcal serogroup B strains worldwide.
doi:10.1007/s40265-013-0155-7
PMCID: PMC3890039  PMID: 24338083
3.  Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following early infant vaccination with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine and immunogenicity of a preschool booster dose 
Background:
The multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal (4CMenB) vaccine was recently licensed for use in Europe. There are currently no data on the persistence of bactericidal antibodies induced by use of this vaccine in infants. Our objective was to evaluate serogroup B–specific bactericidal antibodies in children aged 40–44 months previously vaccinated at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age.
Methods:
Participants given 4 doses of 4CMenB as infants received a fifth dose of the vaccine at 40–44 months of age. Age-matched participants who were MenB vaccine–naive received 4CMenB and formed the control group. We evaluated human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titres at baseline and 1 month after each dose of 4CMenB.
Results:
Before a booster dose at enrolment, 41%–76% of 17 participants previously vaccinated with 4CMenB in infancy had hSBA titres of 4 or greater against 4 reference strains. Before vaccination in the control group (n = 40) these proportions were similar for strains 44/76-SL (63%) and M10713 (68%) but low for strains NZ98/254 (0%) and 5/99 (3%). A booster dose in the 4CMenB-primed participants generated greater increases in hSBA titres than in controls.
Interpretation:
As has been observed with other meningococcal vaccines, bactericidal antibodies waned after vaccination with 4CMenB administered according to an approved infant vaccination schedule of 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age, but there was an anamnestic response to a booster dose at 40–44 months of age. If 4CMenB were introduced into routine vaccination schedules, assessment of the need for a booster dose would require data on the impact of these declining titres on vaccine effectiveness. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01027351
doi:10.1503/cmaj.130257
PMCID: PMC3796620  PMID: 24062178
4.  Bacillus anthracis Aerosolization Associated with a Contaminated Mail Sorting Machine 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(10):1044-1047.
On October 12, 2001, two envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores passed through a sorting machine in a postal facility in Washington, D.C. When anthrax infection was identified in postal workers 9 days later, the facility was closed. To determine if exposure to airborne B. anthracis spores continued to occur, we performed air sampling around the contaminated sorter. One CFU of B. anthracis was isolated from 990 L of air sampled before the machine was activated. Six CFUs were isolated during machine activation and processing of clean dummy mail. These data indicate that an employee working near this machine might inhale approximately 30 B. anthracis-containing particles during an 8-h work shift. What risk this may have represented to postal workers is not known, but the risk is approximately 20-fold less than estimates of sub-5 micron B. anthracis-containing particles routinely inhaled by asymptomatic, unvaccinated workers in a goat-hair mill.
doi:10.3201/eid0810.020356
PMCID: PMC2730297  PMID: 12396913
Bacillus anthracis; anthrax; risk assessment; occupational exposure
5.  Randomized Trial on the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an Investigational Quadrivalent Meningococcal Glycoconjugate Vaccine, Administered Concomitantly with a Combined Tetanus, Reduced Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults▿ †  
This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00436-09
PMCID: PMC2849330  PMID: 20164251
6.  Quadrivalent Meningococcal Vaccination of Adults: Phase III Comparison of an Investigational Conjugate Vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the Licensed Vaccine, Menactra▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2009;16(12):1810-1815.
Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, with the highest case fatality rates reported for individuals ≥15 years of age. This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of the Novartis Vaccines investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197 conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, to those of the licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, when administered to healthy adults. In this phase III multicenter study, 1,359 adults 19 to 55 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four groups (1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive a single dose of one of three lots of MenACWY-CRM or a single dose of Menactra. Serum samples obtained at baseline and 1 month postvaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA). The hSBA titers following vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and Menactra were compared in noninferiority and prespecified superiority analyses. Reactogenicity was similar in the MenACWY-CRM and Menactra groups, and neither vaccine was associated with a serious adverse event. When compared with Menactra, MenACWY-CRM met the superiority criteria for the proportions of recipients achieving a seroresponse against serogroups C, W-135, and Y and the proportion of subjects achieving postvaccination titers of ≥1:8 for serogroups C and Y. MenACWY-CRM's immunogenicity was statistically noninferior (the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was more than −10%) to that of Menactra for all four serogroups, with the postvaccination hSBA geometric mean titers being consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for Menactra. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated in adults 19 to 55 years of age, with immune responses to each of the serogroups noninferior and, in some cases, statistically superior to those to Menactra.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00207-09
PMCID: PMC2786376  PMID: 19812260
7.  First Case of Bioterrorism-Related Inhalational Anthrax in the United States, Palm Beach County, Florida, 2001 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(10):1029-1034.
On October 4, 2001, we confirmed the first bioterrorism-related anthrax case identified in the United States in a resident of Palm Beach County, Florida. Epidemiologic investigation indicated that exposure occurred at the workplace through intentionally contaminated mail. One additional case of inhalational anthrax was identified from the index patient’s workplace. Among 1,076 nasal cultures performed to assess exposure, Bacillus anthracis was isolated from a co-worker later confirmed as being infected, as well as from an asymptomatic mail-handler in the same workplace. Environmental cultures for B. anthracis showed contamination at the workplace and six county postal facilities. Environmental and nasal swab cultures were useful epidemiologic tools that helped direct the investigation towards the infection source and transmission vehicle. We identified 1,114 persons at risk and offered antimicrobial prophylaxis.
doi:10.3201/eid0810.020354
PMCID: PMC2730309  PMID: 12396910
Anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; bioterrorism; nasal swab cultures; environmental cultures

Results 1-7 (7)