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1.  Alteration of Muscle Function After Electrical Stimulation Bout of Knee Extensors and Flexors 
The purpose was to study the effects on muscle function of an electrical stimulation bout applied unilaterally on thigh muscles in healthy male volunteers. One group (ES group, n = 10) received consecutively 100 isometric contractions of quadriceps and 100 isometric contractions of hamstrings (on-off ratio 6-6 s) induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulations (NMES). Changes in muscle torque, muscle soreness (0-10 VAS), muscle stiffness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were assessed before the NMES exercise (pre-ex) as well as 24h (d+1), 48h (d+2) and 120h (d+5) after the bout. A second group (control group, n = 10) were submitted to the same test battery than the ES group and with the same time-frame. The between-group comparison indicated a significant increase in VAS scores and in serum levels of CK only in the ES group. In the ES group, changes were more pronounced in hamstrings than in quadriceps and peaked at d+2 (quadriceps VAS scores = 2.20 ± 1.55 a.u. (0 at pre-ex); hamstrings VAS scores = 3.15 ± 2.14 a.u. (0 at pre-ex); hip flexion angle = 62 ± 5° (75 ± 6° at pre-ex); CK activity = 3021 ± 2693 IU·l-1 (136 ± 50 IU·l-1 at pre-ex)). The results of the present study suggested the occurrence of muscle damage that could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appeared higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles.
Key points
A stimulation bout of quadriceps and hamstrings that reflects usual application of NMES, increases indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, muscle weakness and stiffness and serum CK activity).
The occurrence of muscle damage could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress.
The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appears higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles.
PMCID: PMC3763303  PMID: 24150067
Electrical stimulation; DOMS; muscle contraction; muscle damage
2.  Translation validation of a new back pain screening questionnaire (the STarT Back Screening Tool) in French 
Archives of Public Health  2012;70(1):12.
Background
Low back pain (LBP) is a major public health problem and the identification of individuals at risk of persistent LBP poses substantial challenges to clinical management. The STarT Back questionnaire is a validated nine-item patient self-report questionnaire that classifies patients with LBP at low, medium or high-risk of poor prognosis for persistent non-specific LBP. The objective of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the English version of the STarT Back questionnaire into French.
Methods
The translation was performed using best practice translation guidelines. The following phases were performed: contact with the STarT Back questionnaire developers, initial translations (English into French), synthesis, back translations, expert committee review, test of the pre-final version on 44 individuals with LBP, final version.
Results
The linguistic translation required minor semantic alterations. The participants interviewed indicated that all items of the questionnaire were globally clear and comprehensible. However, 6 subjects (14%) wondered if two questions were related to back pain or general health. After discussion within the expert committee and with the developer of the STarT Back tool, it was decided to modify the questionnaire and to add a reference to back pain in these two questions.
Conclusions
The French version of the STarT Back questionnaire has been shown to be comprehensible and adapted to the French speaking general population. Investigations are now required to test the psychometric properties (reliability, internal and external validity, responsiveness) of this translated version of the questionnaire.
doi:10.1186/0778-7367-70-12
PMCID: PMC3436683  PMID: 22958224
Low back pain; Questionnaire; Translation

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