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1.  A Comparative Study of Tests for Homogeneity of Variances with Application to DNA Methylation Data 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0145295.
Variable DNA methylation has been associated with cancers and complex diseases. Researchers have identified many DNA methylation markers that have different mean methylation levels between diseased subjects and normal subjects. Recently, researchers found that DNA methylation markers with different variabilities between subject groups could also have biological meaning. In this article, we aimed to help researchers choose the right test of equal variance in DNA methylation data analysis. We performed systematic simulation studies and a real data analysis to compare the performances of 7 equal-variance tests, including 2 tests recently proposed in the DNA methylation analysis literature. Our results showed that the Brown-Forsythe test and trimmed-mean-based Levene's test had good performance in testing for equality of variance in our simulation studies and real data analyses. Our results also showed that outlier profiles could be biologically very important.
PMCID: PMC4684215  PMID: 26683022
2.  Integration of Mouse and Human Genome-Wide Association Data Identifies KCNIP4 as an Asthma Gene 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56179.
Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The genetics of asthma have been widely studied in mouse and human, and homologous genomic regions have been associated with mouse AHR and human asthma-related phenotypes. Our goal was to identify asthma-related genes by integrating AHR associations in mouse with human genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. We used Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA) analysis to conduct a GWAS of baseline AHR measures from males and females of 31 mouse strains. Genes near or containing SNPs with EMMA p-values <0.001 were selected for further study in human GWAS. The results of the previously reported EVE consortium asthma GWAS meta-analysis consisting of 12,958 diverse North American subjects from 9 study centers were used to select a subset of homologous genes with evidence of association with asthma in humans. Following validation attempts in three human asthma GWAS (i.e., Sepracor/LOCCS/LODO/Illumina, GABRIEL, DAG) and two human AHR GWAS (i.e., SHARP, DAG), the Kv channel interacting protein 4 (KCNIP4) gene was identified as nominally associated with both asthma and AHR at a gene- and SNP-level. In EVE, the smallest KCNIP4 association was at rs6833065 (P-value 2.9e-04), while the strongest associations for Sepracor/LOCCS/LODO/Illumina, GABRIEL, DAG were 1.5e-03, 1.0e-03, 3.1e-03 at rs7664617, rs4697177, rs4696975, respectively. At a SNP level, the strongest association across all asthma GWAS was at rs4697177 (P-value 1.1e-04). The smallest P-values for association with AHR were 2.3e-03 at rs11947661 in SHARP and 2.1e-03 at rs402802 in DAG. Functional studies are required to validate the potential involvement of KCNIP4 in modulating asthma susceptibility and/or AHR. Our results suggest that a useful approach to identify genes associated with human asthma is to leverage mouse AHR association data.
PMCID: PMC3572953  PMID: 23457522
3.  Parsing the Effects of Individual SNPs in Candidate Genes with Family Data 
Human Heredity  2009;69(2):91-103.
We introduce a stepwise approach for family-based designs for selecting a set of markers in a gene that are independently associated with the disease. The approach is based on testing the effect of a set of markers conditional on another set of markers. Several likelihood-based approaches have been proposed for special cases, but no model-free based tests have been proposed. We propose two types of tests in a family-based framework that are applicable to arbitrary family structures and completely robust to population stratification. We propose methods for ascertained dichotomous traits and unascertained quantitative traits. We first propose a completely model-free extension of the FBAT main genetic effect test. Then, for power issues, we introduce two model-based tests, one for dichotomous traits and one for continuous traits. Lastly, we utilize these tests to analyze a continuous lung function phenotype as a proxy for asthma in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. The methods are implemented in the free R package fbati.
PMCID: PMC2956011  PMID: 19996607
Binary trait; Candidate gene analysis; Family-based association tests; FBAT-C; Linkage disequilibrium (LD); Model-based test; Model-free test; Nuclear families; Quantitative trait
4.  MMP12, Lung Function, and COPD in High-Risk Populations 
The New England journal of medicine  2009;361(27):2599-2608.
Genetic variants influencing lung function in children and adults may ultimately lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly in high-risk groups.
We tested for an association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) and a measure of lung function (prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]) in more than 8300 subjects in seven cohorts that included children and adults. Within the Normative Aging Study (NAS), a cohort of initially healthy adult men, we tested for an association between SNPs that were associated with FEV1 and the time to the onset of COPD. We then examined the relationship between MMP12 SNPs and COPD in two cohorts of adults with COPD or at risk for COPD.
The minor allele (G) of a functional variant in the promoter region of MMP12 (rs2276109 [−82A→G]) was positively associated with FEV1 in a combined analysis of children with asthma and adult former and current smokers in all cohorts (P=2×10−6). This allele was also associated with a reduced risk of the onset of COPD in the NAS cohort (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 0.92; P = 0.02) and with a reduced risk of COPD in a cohort of smokers (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.88; P = 0.005) and among participants in a family-based study of early-onset COPD (P = 0.006).
The minor allele of a SNP in MMP12 (rs2276109) is associated with a positive effect on lung function in children with asthma and in adults who smoke. This allele is also associated with a reduced risk of COPD in adult smokers.
PMCID: PMC2904064  PMID: 20018959
5.  Attempted Replication of Reported Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Candidate Gene Associations 
Case-control studies have successfully identified many significant genetic associations for complex diseases, but lack of replication has been a criticism of case-control genetic association studies in general. We selected 12 candidate genes with reported associations to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and genotyped 29 polymorphisms in a family-based study and in a case-control study. In the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study families, significant associations with quantitative and/or qualitative COPD-related phenotypes were found for the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α −308G>A promoter polymorphism (P < 0.02), a coding variant in surfactant protein B (SFTPB Thr131Ile) (P = 0.03), and the (GT)31 allele of the heme oxygenase (HMOX1) promoter short tandem repeat (P = 0.02). In the case-control study, the SFTPB Thr131Ile polymorphism was associated with COPD, but only in the presence of a gene-by-environment interaction term (P = 0.01 for both main effect and interaction). The 30-repeat, but not the 31-repeat, allele of HMOX1 was associated (P = 0.04). The TNF −308G>A polymorphism was not significant. In addition, the microsomal epoxide hydrolase “fast” allele (EPHX1 His139Arg) was significantly associated in the case-control study (P = 0.03). Although some evidence for replication was found for SFTPB and HMOX1, none of the previously published COPD genetic associations was convincingly replicated across both study designs.
PMCID: PMC2715305  PMID: 15817713
association studies; case-control studies; emphysema; genetics; single nucleotide polymorphism

Results 1-5 (5)