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1.  Validity of covering-up sun-protection habits: Association of observations and self-report 
Background
Few studies have reported the accuracy of measures used to assess sun-protection practices. Valid measures are critical to the internal validity and use of skin cancer control research.
Objectives
We sought to validate self-reported covering-up practices of pool-goers.
Methods
A total of 162 lifeguards and 201 parent/child pairs from 16 pools in 4 metropolitan regions in the United States completed a survey and a 4-day sun-habits diary. Observations of sun-protective behaviors were conducted on two occasions.
Results
Agreement between observations and diaries ranged from slight to substantial, with most values in the fair to moderate range. Highest agreement was observed for parent hat use (κ = 0.58–0.70). There was no systematic pattern of over- or under-reporting among the 3 study groups.
Limitations
Potential reactivity and a relatively affluent sample are limitations.
Conclusion
There was little over-reporting and no systematic bias, which increases confidence in reliance on verbal reports of these behaviors in surveys and intervention research.
doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2008.12.015
PMCID: PMC3715114  PMID: 19278750
concurrent validity; measurement; observation; self-report assessment; sun protection
2.  Validity of Self-Reported Solar UVR Exposure Compared to Objectively Measured UVR Exposure 
Background
Reliance on verbal self-report of solar exposure in skin cancer prevention and epidemiologic studies may be problematic if self-report data are not valid due to systematic errors in recall, social desirability bias, or other reasons.
Methods
This study examines the validity of self-reports of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) compared to objectively measured exposure among children and adults in outdoor recreation settings in four regions of the United States. Objective UVR exposures of 515 participants were measured using polysulfone film badge UVR dosimeters on two days. The same subjects provided self-reported UVR exposure data on surveys and 4-day sun exposure diaries, for comparison to their objectively measured exposure.
Results
Dosimeter data showed that lifeguards had the greatest UVR exposure (24.5% of weekday ambient UVR), children the next highest exposures (10.3% ambient weekday UVR) and parents had the lowest (6.6% ambient weekday UVR). Similar patterns were observed in self-report data. Correlations between diary reports and dosimeter findings were fair to good and were highest for lifeguards (r = 0.38 – 0.57), followed by parents (r = 0.28 – 0.29) and children (r = 0.18 – 0.34). Correlations between survey and diary measures were moderate to good for lifeguards (r = 0.20 – 0.54) and children (r = 0.35 – 0.53).
Conclusions
This is the largest study of its kind to date, and supports the utility of self-report measures of solar UVR exposure.
Impact
Overall, self-reports of sun exposure produce valid measures of UVR exposure among parents, children, and lifeguards who work outdoors.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0709
PMCID: PMC3005549  PMID: 20940277
skin cancer; sun exposure; UVR; dosimeters; validation; biomarkers
3.  Training for and Dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS) 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;7(6):A126.
Introduction
Researchers believe that nutrition environments contribute to obesity and may explain some health disparities. The Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS) are valid and reliable observational measures of the nutrition environment. This article describes the dissemination of the measures, including the development, implementation, and evaluation of training workshops, and a follow-up survey of training participants.
Methods
To disseminate the NEMS measures, we developed a 2-day intensive, participatory workshop. We used an immediate postcourse evaluation and a structured telephone follow-up interview to evaluate the workshops and the dissemination strategy. Topics included use of the NEMS measures, reactions to the workshops, and participants' training others on the measures.
Results
During the study period, 173 people participated in 14 workshops. Participants indicated a high level of satisfaction with the training workshops. Almost two-thirds of respondents reported using the measures to train an additional 292 people and to rate more than 3,000 food outlets. The measures have been used in diverse locations across the United States for various purposes. Respondents have reported NEMS results in peer-reviewed journals, master's theses, newspaper articles, and presentations.
Conclusion
The NEMS measures are the only nutrition environment measures that have been packaged for distribution and widely disseminated. The measures fill a need in the worlds of research and community action, and dissemination was successful in accelerating diffusion and promoting adoption of the measures. The use of an ongoing, continual process to improve workshops and measures contributes to the usefulness of the surveys and accelerates their adoption and continued use.
PMCID: PMC2995598  PMID: 20950533

Results 1-3 (3)