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author:("Das, abik")
1.  Association between Urinary Lactate to Creatinine Ratio and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Term Infants with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy 
The Journal of pediatrics  2008;153(3):375-378.
Objective
To assess the association between urinary lactate to creatinine ratio (ULCR) and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and examine the effect of hypothermia on the change in ULCR.
Study design
Spot urine samples were collected in 58 term infants (28 hypothermia, 30 control subjects) with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Urinary lactate and creatinine were measured by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and expressed as ULCR. Survivors were examined at 18 months of age.
Results
The ULCR was significantly higher in infants who died or had moderate/severe neurodevelopmental disability. Logistic regression analysis controlling for hypothermia and severity of encephalopathy confirmed the association (adjusted odds ratio, 5.52; 95% CI, 1.36, 22.42; P < .02). Considerable overlap in ULCR was observed between infants with normal/mild disability and those who died or survived with moderate/severe disability. ULCR fell significantly between 6 and 24 hours and 48 and 72 hours of age for all infants. The magnitude of decline did not differ between hypothermia and control groups.
Conclusions
High ULCR is associated with death or moderate/severe neurodevelopmental disability. Significant overlap in values between the normal/mild and moderate/severe disability groups limits predictive value of this measure. Whole-body hypothermia did not affect the decline in ULCR.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.03.041
PMCID: PMC2953792  PMID: 18534246
2.  Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Special Education in School-Aged Children 
Pediatrics  2008;122(1):e83-e91.
OBJECTIVE
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates.
METHODS
As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ.
RESULTS
Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates.
CONCLUSIONS
Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population.
doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2826
PMCID: PMC2861352  PMID: 18541617
prenatal exposure; cocaine; education; schools
3.  The Effect of Parenting Stress on Child Behavior Problems in High-Risk Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure 
Objective
To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior.
Methods
A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, which is a large sample of children (n = 1388) with prenatal cocaine exposure and a comparison sample unexposed to cocaine. Of the 607 dyads, 221 were prenatally exposed to cocaine and 386 were unexposed to cocaine. Selection was based on the presence of a stable caregiver at 4 and 36 months with no evidence of change in caregiver between those time points.
Results
Parenting stress at 4 months significantly predicted child externalizing behavior at 36 months. These relations were unaffected by cocaine exposure suggesting the relationship between parenting stress and behavioral outcome exists for high-risk children regardless of drug exposure history.
Conclusions
These results extend the findings of the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior to a sample of high-risk children with prenatal drug exposure. Implications for outcome and treatment are discussed.
doi:10.1007/s10578-008-0109-6
PMCID: PMC2861499  PMID: 18626768
disruptive behavior; parenting stress; high-risk children; prenatal drug exposure; cocaine
4.  Aggressive vs. Conservative Phototherapy for Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight 
Background
It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less).
Methods
We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or conservative phototherapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death or neurodevelopmental impairment determined for 91% of the infants by investigators who were unaware of the treatment assignments.
Results
Aggressive phototherapy, as compared with conservative phototherapy, significantly reduced the mean peak serum bilirubin level (7.0 vs. 9.8 mg per deciliter [120 vs. 168 μmol per liter], P<0.01) but not the rate of the primary outcome (52% vs. 55%; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.02; P = 0.15). Aggressive phototherapy did reduce rates of neurodevelopmental impairment (26%, vs. 30% for conservative phototherapy; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.99). Rates of death in the aggressive-phototherapy and conservative-phototherapy groups were 24% and 23%, respectively (relative risk, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.22). In preplanned subgroup analyses, the rates of death were 13% with aggressive phototherapy and 14% with conservative phototherapy for infants with a birth weight of 751 to 1000 g and 39% and 34%, respectively (relative risk, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.34), for infants with a birth weight of 501 to 750 g.
Conclusions
Aggressive phototherapy did not significantly reduce the rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment alone was significantly reduced with aggressive phototherapy. This reduction may be offset by an increase in mortality among infants weighing 501 to 750 g at birth. (ClinicalTrials. gov number, NCT00114543.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0803024
PMCID: PMC2821221  PMID: 18971491
5.  Outcomes of Safety and Effectiveness in a Multicenter Randomized, Controlled Trial of Whole-Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy 
Pediatrics  2008;122(4):e791.
Background
Whole-body hypothermia reduced the frequency of death or moderate/severe disabilities in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in a randomized, controlled multicenter trial.
Objective
Our goal was to evaluate outcomes of safety and effectiveness of hypothermia in infants up to 18 to 22 months of age.
Design/Methods
A priori outcomes were evaluated between hypothermia (n = 102) and control (n = 106) groups.
Results
Encephalopathy attributable to causes other than hypoxia-ischemia at birth was not noted. Inotropic support (hypothermia, 59% of infants; control, 56% of infants) was similar during the 72-hour study intervention period in both groups. Need for blood transfusions (hypothermia, 24%; control, 24%), platelet transfusions (hypothermia, 20%; control, 12%), and volume expanders (hypothermia, 54%; control, 49%) was similar in the 2 groups. Among infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension (hypothermia, 25%; control, 22%), nitric-oxide use (hypothermia, 68%; control, 57%) and placement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (hypothermia, 4%; control, 9%) was similar between the 2 groups. Non–central nervous system organ dysfunctions occurred with similar frequency in the hypothermia (74%) and control (73%) groups. Rehospitalization occurred among 27% of the infants in the hypothermia group and 42% of infants in the control group. At 18 months, the hypothermia group had 24 deaths, 19 severe disabilities, and 2 moderate disabilities, whereas the control group had 38 deaths, 25 severe disabilities, and 1 moderate disability. Growth parameters were similar between survivors. No adverse outcomes were noted among infants receiving hypothermia with transient reduction of temperature below a target of 33.5°C at initiation of cooling. There was a trend in reduction of frequency of all outcomes in the hypothermia group compared with the control group in both moderate and severe encephalopathy categories.
Conclusions
Although not powered to test these secondary outcomes, whole-body hypothermia in infants with encephalopathy was safe and was associated with a consistent trend for decreasing frequency of each of the components of disability.
doi:10.1542/peds.2008-0456
PMCID: PMC2819143  PMID: 18829776
hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; whole-body hypothermia; safety; effectiveness

Results 1-5 (5)