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author:("Das, abik")
1.  Neurobehavioral Assessment Predicts Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants 
The Journal of pediatrics  2009;156(3):366-371.
Objective
To determine whether Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavior Scales (NNNS) at 44 weeks predict motor outcome at 2 years in preterm infants from the Maternal Lifestyles Study (MLS).
Study design
Data were collected on all preterm infants (<36 weeks) in the MLS who had an NNNS at 44 weeks (n=395) and neurologic exam at 12–36 months or Bayley Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) at 24 months (n=270). Logistic regression analyzed NNNS summary scores associated with Cerebral Palsy (CP) or PDI <70, while controlling for birth weight 1250g.
Results
Eighteen of 395 infants (5%) had CP; 24 of 270 infants (9%) had PDI <70. CP was associated with low quality of movement (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24–3.06, p=0.004) and high lethargy (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.01–2.76, p=0.045). The model contributed 19% of the variance in CP diagnosis at 12–36 months (R2=0.19, p<0.001). Low PDI was associated with low handling (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.12–2.99, p=0.017), low quality of movement (OR 2.16; 95%CI 1.38–3.38, p=0.001), and hypotonia (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.14–2.32, p=0.007). The model contributed 26% of the variance in PDI <70 at 24 months (R2=0.26, p<0.001).
Conclusions
The neurobehavioral profile of underarousal in 44 week preterm infants may predict poor motor outcome.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.09.042
PMCID: PMC3121326  PMID: 19880137
neurobehavior; outcomes; ELBW
2.  Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure at 9 Years of Age 
Journal of hypertension  2010;28(6):1166-1175.
Background
Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation and poor birth outcomes; little is known about the effects on longer-term medical outcomes, such as overweight status and hypertension in childhood. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age among children followed prospectively in a multi-site longitudinal study evaluating the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on childhood outcome.
Design/Methods
This analysis includes 880 children (277 cocaine exposed and 603 with no cocaine exposure) with blood pressure, height, and weight measurements at 9 years of age. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age after controlling for demographics, other drug exposure, birth weight, maternal weight, infant postnatal weight gain, and childhood television viewing, exercise and dietary habits at 9 years. Path analyses were used to further explore these relationships.
Results
At 9 years of age, 15% of the children were pre-hypertensive and 19% were hypertensive; 16% were at risk for overweight status and 21% were overweight. A small percentage of women were exposed to high levels of prenatal cocaine throughout pregnancy. Among children born to these women, a higher body mass index was noted. Path analysis suggested that high cocaine exposure has an indirect effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure that is mediated through its effect on body mass index.
Conclusion
High levels of in-utero cocaine exposure are a marker for elevated body mass index and blood pressure among children born full term.
PMCID: PMC2874425  PMID: 20486281
Prenatal cocaine exposure; Body mass index; Childhood hypertension; Overweight; Obesity
3.  Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Special Education in School-Aged Children 
Pediatrics  2008;122(1):e83-e91.
OBJECTIVE
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates.
METHODS
As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ.
RESULTS
Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates.
CONCLUSIONS
Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population.
doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2826
PMCID: PMC2861352  PMID: 18541617
prenatal exposure; cocaine; education; schools

Results 1-3 (3)