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1.  Maternal antenatal vitamin D status and offspring muscle development: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey 
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism  2013;99(1):10.1210/jc.2013-3241.
Maternal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] status in pregnancy has been associated with offspring bone development and adiposity. Vitamin D has also been implicated in postnatal muscle function but little is known about a role for antenatal 25(OH)D exposure in programming muscle development.
We investigated the associations between maternal plasma 25(OH)D status at 34 weeks gestation and offspring lean mass and muscle strength at 4 years of age.
Design and setting
A prospective UK population-based mother-offspring cohort: the Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS).
12583 non-pregnant women were initially recruited into SWS, of which 3159 had singleton pregnancies. 678 mother-child pairs were included in this analysis.
Main Outcomes Measured
At 4 years of age, offspring assessments included hand grip strength (Jamar Dynamometer) and whole body DXA (Hologic Discovery) yielding lean mass and %lean mass. Physical activity was assessed by 7-day accelerometry (Actiheart) in a subset of children (n=326).
Maternal serum 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy was positively associated with offspring height-adjusted hand grip strength (β=0.10 SD/SD, p=0.013), which persisted after adjustment for maternal confounding factors, duration of breastfeeding and child’s physical activity at 4 years (β=0.13 SD/SD, p=0.014). Maternal 25(OH)D was also positively associated with offspring %lean mass (β=0.11 SD/SD, p=0.006), but not total lean mass (β=0.06, p=0.15). This however did not persist after adjustment for confounding factors (β=0.09 SD/SD, p=0.11).
This observational study suggests that intrauterine exposure to 25(OH)D during late pregnancy might influence offspring muscle development through an effect primarily on muscle strength rather than muscle mass.
PMCID: PMC3880861  PMID: 24178796
vitamin D; grip strength; muscle mass; fetal programming
2.  Maternal size in pregnancy and body composition in children 
Evidence suggests that babies' fat mass at birth is greater if their mothers were themselves fatter during pregnancy, but it is unclear whether this association persists into childhood.
To examine the relation between maternal size in pregnancy, early growth and body composition in children.
Prospective cohort study
Southampton, UK.
216 nine-year-old children whose mothers had participated in a study of nutrition during pregnancy.
Main outcome measures:
Fat mass and lean mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, adjusted for height (“fat mass index” and “lean mass index”).
Fat mass index at age nine years was greater in children whose mothers had a larger mid-upper arm circumference in late pregnancy or a higher pre-pregnant body mass index. For one standard deviation (SD) increase in maternal mid-upper arm circumference in late pregnancy, fat mass index rose by 0.26 (95% CI 0.06-0.46) SD in boys and by 0.44 (95% CI 0.31-0.57) SD in girls. For one SD increase in maternal pre-pregnant BMI, fat mass index rose by 0.26 (95% CI 0.04-0.48) SD in boys and by 0.42 (95% CI 0.29-0.56) SD in girls.
Mothers with a higher pre-pregnant body mass index or a larger mid-upper arm circumference during pregnancy tend to have children with greater adiposity at age nine. The extent to which this is attributable to genetic factors, the influence of maternal lifestyle on that of her child, or maternal adiposity acting specifically during pregnancy on the child's fat mass cannot be determined in this study.
PMCID: PMC2066182  PMID: 17684051
child; body composition; pregnancy; birth weight; weight gain; infancy

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