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1.  Development of a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to assess a ‘prudent’ dietary pattern amongst young women in Southampton 
Objective
To develop a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that can be used amongst young women in Southampton to assess compliance with a prudent dietary pattern characterised by high consumption of wholemeal bread, fruit and vegetables, and low consumption of sugar, white bread, and red and processed meat.
Methods
Diet was assessed using a 100-item interviewer-administered FFQ in 6,129 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 years. 94 of these women were re-interviewed two years later using the same FFQ. Subsequently diet was assessed in 378 women attending SureStart Children’s Centres in the Nutrition and Well-being Study using a 20-item FFQ. The 20 foods included were those that characterised the prudent dietary pattern.
Results
The 20-item prudent diet score was highly correlated with the full 100-item score (r=0.94) in the Southampton Women’s Survey. Both scores were correlated with red blood cell folate (r=0.28 for the 100-item score and r=0.25 for the 20-item score). Amongst the women re-interviewed after two years, the change in prudent diet score was correlated with change in red cell folate for both the 20-item (rS=0.31) and 100-item scores (rS=0.32). In the Nutrition and Well-being Study a strong association between the 20-item prudent diet score and educational attainment (r=0.41) was observed, similar to that seen in the Southampton Women’s Survey (r=0.47).
Conclusions
The prudent diet pattern describes a robust axis of variation in diet. A 20-item FFQ based on the foods that characterise the prudent diet pattern has clear advantages in terms of time and resources, and is a helpful tool to characterise the diets of young women in Southampton.
doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.114
PMCID: PMC3091018  PMID: 19756032
Food frequency questionnaire; Principal component analysis
2.  Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and child outcomes 
Objective:
To investigate whether exposure to high maternal concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D in pregnancy poses any risk to the child.
Design:
Prospective study.
Setting:
Princess Anne Maternity Hospital, Southampton, UK.
Subjects:
596 pregnant women were recruited. 466 (78%) children were examined at birth, 440 (74%) at age 9 months and 178 (30%) at age 9 years.
Methods:
Maternal (OH)-vitamin D concentrations were measured in late pregnancy. Anthropometry of the child was recorded at birth, 9 months and 9 years. At 9 months, atopic eczema was assessed. At 9 years, children had an echocardiogram and a DXA scan, blood pressure, arterial compliance and carotid intima-media thickness were measured and intelligence and psychological function assessed.
Results:
There were no associations between maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations and the child's body size or measures of the child's intelligence, psychological health or cardiovascular system. Children whose mothers' concentration of 25(OH)-vitamin D in pregnancy was >75 nmol/l had an increased risk of eczema on examination at 9 months (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.15-9.29, p=0.025) and asthma at age 9 years (OR 5.40, 95% CI, 1.09-26.65, p=0.038) compared to children whose mothers' concentration was <30 nmol/l.
Conclusion:
Exposure to maternal concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D in pregnancy in excess of 75 nmol/l does not appear to influence the child's intelligence, psychological health or cardiovascular system; there could be an increased risk of atopic disorders, but this needs confirmation in other studies.
doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602680
PMCID: PMC2629513  PMID: 17311057
pregnancy; diet; vitamin D; infant; child

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