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1.  The presence of bacteria species in semen and sperm quality 
Purpose
To verify the prevalence of semen bacterial contamination and whether the contamination could decrease sperm quality.
Methods
Spermiogram, semen culture, and sperm transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were performed. TEM data were elaborated using a mathematical formula that calculates a fertility index (FI)—able to define patients as fertile or infertile—and the percentage of sperm apoptosis, immaturity and necrosis. We aligned the amino acid sequence of beta-tubulin with protein of the most frequent species isolated from semen.
Results
Patients were divided according to the contaminating species; in each group, we observed fertile individuals, in whom the semen quality was similar to that of controls and infertile men whose sperm quality was significantly decreased, in terms of motility, FI, apoptosis and necrosis. Partial homology between β-tubulin and bacterial proteins was observed.
Conclusion
Sperm bacterial contamination is quite frequent and could contribute to the deterioration of the sperm quality of infertile men.
doi:10.1007/s10815-008-9283-5
PMCID: PMC2649329  PMID: 19089609
Bacteria; Semen quality; Spermatozoa; TEM

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