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1.  Phase I Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of the Oral, Small-Molecule Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1/2 Inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) in Patients With Advanced Cancers 
Purpose
To assess the tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) in patients with advanced cancer.
Patients and Methods
In part A, patients received escalating doses to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD). In both parts, blood samples were collected to assess PK and PD parameters. In part B, patients were stratified by cancer type (melanoma v other) and randomly assigned to receive the MTD or 50% MTD. Biopsies were collected to determine inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, Ki-67 expression, and BRAF, KRAS, and NRAS mutations.
Results
Fifty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD in part A was 200 mg bid, but this dose was discontinued in part B because of toxicity. The 50% MTD (100 mg bid) was well tolerated. Rash was the most frequent and dose-limiting toxicity. Most other adverse events were grade 1 or 2. The PKs were less than dose proportional, with a median half-life of approximately 8 hours and inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells at all dose levels. Paired tumor biopsies demonstrated reduced ERK phosphorylation (geometric mean, 79%). Five of 20 patients demonstrated ≥ 50% inhibition of Ki-67 expression, and RAF or RAS mutations were detected in 10 of 26 assessable tumor samples. Nine patients had stable disease (SD) for ≥ 5 months, including two patients with SD for 19 (thyroid cancer) and 22 (uveal melanoma plus renal cancer) 28-day cycles.
Conclusion
AZD6244 was well tolerated with target inhibition demonstrated at the recommended phase II dose. PK analyses supported twice-daily dosing. Prolonged SD was seen in a variety of advanced cancers. Phase II studies are ongoing.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.14.4956
PMCID: PMC2718422  PMID: 18390968
2.  New agents in the Treatment for Malignancies of the Salivary and Thyroid Glands 
doi:10.1016/j.hoc.2008.08.010
PMCID: PMC2659655  PMID: 19010274
malignant salivary gland tumors; thyroid cancer; tyrosine kinase inhibitors
3.  The Role of Cetuximab for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck 
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) while curable in many cases with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, remains a disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Agents that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have demonstrated activity in this disease. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody, is FDA-approved in conjunction with radiation for locally advanced, potentially curable disease, and as a single agent for incurable recurrent/metastatic disease. In addition, there are more recent data showing a survival benefit for patients with recurrent/metastatic disease who were treated with a 1st-line regimen of platinum, fluorouracil and cetuximab. These promising results have had a significant impact on the standard of care for HNSCC, and have prompted further research on the role of EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of HNSCC. In the following review, we will discuss the history, mechanism, and clinical trials that pertain to the role of cetuximab in the treatment of HNSCC.
PMCID: PMC2745918  PMID: 18997665
4.  A Phase I Study of the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Trabectedin in Combination With Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in Patients With Advanced Malignancies 
SUMMARY
Background
To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, and effect on liver histology of trabectedin in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for advanced malignancies.
Patients and Methods
Entry criteria for the 36 patients included normal liver function, prior doxorubicin exposure <250 mg/m2, and normal cardiac function. A 1-hour PLD (30 mg/m2) infusion was followed immediately by 1 of 6 trabectedin doses (0.4, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3 mg/m2) infused over 3 hours, repeated every 21 days until evidence of complete response (CR), disease progression, or unacceptable txicity. Plasma samples were obtained to assess PK profiles.
Results
The MTD of trabectedin was 1.1 mg/m2. Drug-related grade 3 and 4 toxicities were neutropenia (31%) and elevated transaminases (31%). Six patients responded (1 CR, 5 partial responses), with an overall response rate of 16.7%, and 14 had stable disease >4 months (39%). Neither drug had its PK affected significantly by concomitant administration compared to trabectedin and PLD each given as a single agent.
Conclusion
Trabectedin combined with PLD is generally well tolerated at therapeutic doses of both drugs in pretreated patients with diverse tumor types, and appears to provide clinical benefit. These results support the need for additional studies of this combination in appropriate cancer types.
doi:10.1093/annonc/mdn363
PMCID: PMC2598415  PMID: 18497430
trabectedin; ET-743; pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD); sarcomas; ovarian cancer

Results 1-4 (4)