PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-5 (5)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Research Participants' High Expectations of Benefit in Early-Phase Oncology Trials: Are We Asking the Right Question? 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2012;30(35):4396-4400.
Purpose
To determine whether patients' expectations of benefit in early-phase oncology trials depend on how patients are queried and to explore whether expectations are associated with patient characteristics.
Patients and Methods
Participants were 171 patients in phase I or II oncology trials in the United States. After providing informed consent for a trial but before receiving the investigational therapy, participants answered questions about expectations of benefit. We randomly assigned participants to one of three groups corresponding to three queries about expectations: frequency type, belief type, or both. Main outcomes were differences in expectations by question type and the extent to which expectations were associated with demographic characteristics, numeracy, dispositional optimism, religiousness/spirituality, understanding of research, and other measures.
Results
The belief-type group had a higher mean expectation of benefit (64.4 of 100) than the combination group (51.6; P = .01) and the frequency-type group (43.1; P < .001). Mean expectations in the combination and frequency groups were not significantly different (P = .06). Belief-type expectations were associated with a preference for nonquantitative information (r = −0.19; 95% CI, −0.19 to −0.36), knowledge about research (r = −0.21; 95% CI, −0.38 to −0.03), dispositional optimism (r = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.37), and spirituality (r = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.38). Frequency-type expectations were associated with knowledge about clinical research (r = −0.27; 95% CI, −0.27 to −0.51).
Conclusion
In early-phase oncology trials, patients' reported expectations of benefit differed according to how patients were queried and were associated with patient characteristics. These findings have implications for how informed consent is obtained and assessed.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.40.6587
PMCID: PMC3615308  PMID: 23091107
2.  Activity of XL184 (Cabozantinib), an Oral Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(19):2660-2666.
Purpose
XL184 (cabozantinib) is a potent inhibitor of MET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and RET, with robust antiangiogenic, antitumor, and anti-invasive effects in preclinical models. Early observations of clinical benefit in a phase I study of cabozantinib, which included patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), led to expansion of an MTC-enriched cohort, which is the focus of this article.
Patients and Methods
A phase I dose-escalation study of oral cabozantinib was conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors. Primary end points included evaluation of safety, pharmacokinetics, and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) determination. Additional end points included RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) response, pharmacodynamics, RET mutational status, and biomarker analyses.
Results
Eighty-five patients were enrolled, including 37 with MTC. The MTD was 175 mg daily. Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), mucositis, and AST, ALT, and lipase elevations and grade 2 mucositis that resulted in dose interruption and reduction. Ten (29%) of 35 patients with MTC with measurable disease had a confirmed partial response. Overall, 18 patients experienced tumor shrinkage of 30% or more, including 17 (49%) of 35 patients with MTC with measurable disease. Additionally, 15 (41%) of 37 patients with MTC had stable disease (SD) for at least 6 months, resulting in SD for 6 months or longer or confirmed partial response in 68% of patients with MTC.
Conclusion
Cabozantinib has an acceptable safety profile and is active in MTC. Cabozantinib may provide clinical benefit by simultaneously targeting multiple pathways of importance in MTC, including MET, VEGFR2, and RET. A global phase III pivotal study in MTC is ongoing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00215605).
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.32.4145
PMCID: PMC3646303  PMID: 21606412
3.  Phase I Pharmacologic and Biologic Study of Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a Fully Human Immunoglobulin G1 Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(5):780-787.
Purpose
To evaluate the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PKs), pharmacodynamics, and preliminary anticancer activity of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2.
Patients and Methods
Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated once weekly with escalating doses of ramucirumab. Blood was sampled for PK studies throughout treatment. The effects of ramucirumab on circulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, tumor perfusion, and vascularity using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were assessed.
Results
Thirty-seven patients were treated with 2 to 16 mg/kg of ramucirumab. After one patient each developed dose-limiting hypertension and deep venous thrombosis at 16 mg/kg, the next lower dose (13 mg/kg) was considered the MTD. Nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and proteinuria were also noted. Four (15%) of 27 patients with measurable disease had a partial response (PR), and 11 (30%) of 37 patients had either a PR or stable disease lasting at least 6 months. PKs were characterized by dose-dependent elimination and nonlinear exposure consistent with saturable clearance. Mean trough concentrations exceeded biologically relevant target levels throughout treatment at all dose levels. Serum VEGF-A increased 1.5 to 3.5 times above pretreatment values and remained in this range throughout treatment at all dose levels. Tumor perfusion and vascularity decreased in 69% of evaluable patients.
Conclusion
Objective antitumor activity and antiangiogenic effects were observed over a wide range of dose levels, suggesting that ramucirumab may have a favorable therapeutic index in treating malignancies amenable to VEGFR-2 inhibition.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.23.7537
PMCID: PMC2834394  PMID: 20048182
4.  Phase I Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Oral CP-868,596, a Highly Specific Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Patients With Advanced Cancers 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(31):5262-5269.
Purpose
This phase I, first-in-human study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of an oral platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor, CP-868,596.
Patients and Methods
Patients with advanced solid tumors were eligible. Dose escalations were performed in three groups with two formulations: uncoated on an empty stomach (UES), uncoated with food (UFED), and film-coated (FC) without food. Initial dose escalation in the UES group was followed by parallel escalations in the UFED and FC groups.
Results
Fifty-nine patients enrolled. CP-868,596 was escalated from 100 mg to 340 mg daily in the UES group, from 60 mg to 100 mg twice daily in the UFED group, and from 100 mg once daily to 140 mg twice daily in the FC group. MTDs were 200 mg daily in the UES group and 100 mg twice daily in the FC group; MTD was not reached at 100 mg twice daily in the UFED group. Dose-limiting toxicities included hematuria, increased γ-glutamyltransferase or ALT, insomnia, and nausea/vomiting. Most treatment-related AEs were of grades 1 to 2 severity; nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were reported most frequently. Administration with food generally improved tolerability. CP-868,596 was absorbed slowly; systemic exposure parameters appeared to increase greater than proportionally with dose. Mean serum concentrations exceeded the preclinically predicted minimal efficacious concentration (ie, 16 ng/mL) at all dosages. Food and film coating apparently increased interpatient variability of the maximum observed plasma concentration and the area under the concentration-time curve. No objective responses were reported, and eight patients achieved stable disease (mean duration, 5.7 months).
Conclusion
CP-868,596 potentially demonstrated greater than dose-proportional pharmacokinetics. The recommended dosage of 100 mg twice daily with food was well tolerated. Additional development as a single agent in selected populations or in combination with chemotherapy in broader populations is warranted.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.21.8487
PMCID: PMC2773478  PMID: 19738123
5.  Phase I Dose Escalation, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of Naptumomab Estafenatox Alone in Patients With Advanced Cancer and With Docetaxel in Patients With Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(25):4116-4123.
Purpose
Two phase I studies were conducted of ABR-217620 alone or in combination with docetaxel. This is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a mutated variant of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEA/E-120) linked to fragment antigen binding moiety of a monoclonal antibody recognizing the tumor-associated antigen 5T4.
Patients and Methods
Patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer (PC), and renal cell cancer (RCC) received 5 daily boluses of ABR-217620 (3-month cycles) in escalating doses to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD; ABR-217620 dose escalation monotherapy [MONO] study). Doses were selected based on individual patient anti–SEA/E-120 titers pretreatment. Patients with NSCLC received 4 daily, escalating doses of ABR-217620 followed by docetaxel in 21-day cycles (ABR-217620 dose escalation combination with docetaxel [COMBO] study).
Results
Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in the MONO study and 13 were enrolled in the COMBO study. The monotherapy MTD was 26 μg/kg (NSCLC and PC) and 15 μg/kg (RCC). Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in the MONO study were fever, hypotension, acute liver toxicity, and vascular leak syndrome. In the COMBO study, the MTD was 22 μg/kg (neutropenic sepsis). Adverse events included grade 1 to 2 fever, hypotension, nausea, and chills. Treatment caused a systemic increase of inflammatory cytokines and selective expansion of SEA/E-120 reactive T-cells. Tumor biopsies demonstrated T-cell infiltration after therapy. Fourteen patients (36%) had stable disease (SD) on day 56 of the MONO study. Two patients (15%) in the COMBO study had partial responses, one in a patient with progressive disease on prior docetaxel, and five patients (38%) had SD on day 56.
Conclusion
ABR-217620 was well tolerated with evidence of immunological activity and antitumor activity.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.20.2515
PMCID: PMC2734423  PMID: 19636016

Results 1-5 (5)