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1.  Identifying targets for COPD treatment through gene expression analyses 
Despite the status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a major global health problem, no currently available therapies can limit COPD progression. Therefore, an urgent need exists for the development of new and effective treatments for COPD. An improved understanding in the molecular pathogenesis of COPD can potentially identify molecular targets to facilitate the development of new therapeutic modalities. Among the best approaches for understanding the molecular basis of COPD include gene expression profiling techniques, such as serial analysis of gene expression or microarrays. Using these methods, recent studies have mapped comparative gene expression profiles of lung tissues from patients with different stages of COPD relative to healthy smokers or non-smokers. Such studies have revealed a number of differentially-regulated genes associated with COPD progression, which include genes involved in the regulation of inflammation, extracellular matrix, cytokines, chemokines, apoptosis, and stress responses. These studies have shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of COPD, and suggest novel targets for clinical treatments.
PMCID: PMC2629979  PMID: 18990963
COPD; gene expression; therapeutic targets
2.  Non-invasive measurements of exhaled NO and CO associated with methacholine responses in mice 
Respiratory Research  2008;9(1):45.
Background
Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in exhaled breath are considered obtainable biomarkers of physiologic mechanisms. Therefore, obtaining their measures simply, non-invasively, and repeatedly, is of interest, and was the purpose of the current study.
Methods
Expired NO (ENO) and CO (ECO) were measured non-invasively using a gas micro-analyzer on several strains of mice (C57Bl6, IL-10-/-, A/J, MKK3-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/- and NOS-3-/-) with and without allergic airway inflammation (AI) induced by ovalbumin systemic sensitization and aerosol challenge, compared using independent-sample t-tests between groups, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) within groups over time of inflammation induction. ENO and ECO were also measured in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, ages 8–58 weeks old, the relationship of which was determined by regression analysis. S-methionyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC), and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) were used to inhibit neuronal/constitutive NOS-1 and heme-oxygenase, respectively, and alter NO and CO production, respectively, as assessed by paired t-tests. Methacholine-associated airway responses (AR) were measured by the enhanced pause method, with comparisons by repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc testing.
Results
ENO was significantly elevated in naïve IL-10-/- (9–14 ppb) and NOS-2-/- (16 ppb) mice as compared to others (average: 5–8 ppb), whereas ECO was significantly higher in naïve A/J, NOS-3-/- (3–4 ppm), and MKK3-/- (4–5 ppm) mice, as compared to others (average: 2.5 ppm). As compared to C57Bl6 mice, AR of IL-10-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/-, and NOS-3-/- mice were decreased, whereas they were greater for A/J and MKK3-/- mice. SMTC significantly decreased ENO by ~30%, but did not change AR in NOS-2-/- mice. SnPP reduced ECO in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, and increased AR in NOS-2-/- mice. ENO decreased as a function of age in IL-10-/- mice, remaining unchanged in C57Bl6 mice.
Conclusion
These results are consistent with the ideas that: 1) ENO is associated with mouse strain and knockout differences in NO production and AR, 2) alterations of ENO and ECO can be measured non-invasively with induction of allergic AI or inhibition of key gas-producing enzymes, and 3) alterations in AR may be dependent on the relative balance of NO and CO in the airway.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-45
PMCID: PMC2474844  PMID: 18505586

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