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Frontiers in Neuroscience (1)
PLoS Biology (1)
The Journal of comparative neurology (1)
Carr, Catherine E. (3)
Ashida, Go (1)
MacLeod, Katrina M. (1)
Tang, Ye-Zhong (1)
Yan, Kai (1)
Year of Publication
Calcium-Binding Protein Immunoreactivity Characterizes the Auditory System of Gekko gecko
The Journal of comparative neurology
Geckos use vocalizations for intraspecific communication, but little is known about the organization of their central auditory system. We therefore used antibodies against the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV), and calbindin-D28k (CB) to characterize the gecko auditory system. We also examined expression of both glutamic acid decarboxlase (GAD) and synaptic vesicle protein (SV2). Western blots showed that these antibodies are specific to gecko brain. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in the auditory nerve, and CR immunoreactivity labeled the first-order nuclei and delineated the terminal fields associated with the ascending projections from the first-order auditory nuclei. PV expression characterized the superior olivary nuclei, whereas GAD immunoreactivity characterized many neurons in the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and some neurons in the torus semicircularis. In the auditory midbrain, the distribution of CR, PV, and CB characterized divisions within the central nucleus of the torus semicircularis. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in nucleus medialis of the thalamus. These expression patterns are similar to those described for other vertebrates.
cochlear nucleus; magnocellularis; laminaris; angularis; torus
MacLeod, Katrina M.
This Primer focuses on detection of the small interaural time differences that underlie sound localization.
Effect of Sampling Frequency on the Measurement of Phase-Locked Action Potentials
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Phase-locked spikes in various types of neurons encode temporal information. To quantify the degree of phase-locking, the metric called vector strength (VS) has been most widely used. Since VS is derived from spike timing information, error in measurement of spike occurrence should result in errors in VS calculation. In electrophysiological experiments, the timing of an action potential is detected with finite temporal precision, which is determined by the sampling frequency. In order to evaluate the effects of the sampling frequency on the measurement of VS, we derive theoretical upper and lower bounds of VS from spikes collected with finite sampling rates. We next estimate errors in VS assuming random sampling effects, and show that our theoretical calculation agrees with data from electrophysiological recordings in vivo. Our results provide a practical guide for choosing the appropriate sampling frequency in measuring VS.
vector strength; phase-locking; auditory brainstem; sound localization; temporal coding; circular statistics
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