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1.  Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophages 
The multitude and abundance of macrophage-derived mediators in rheumatoid arthritis and their paracrine/autocrine effects identify macrophages as local and systemic amplifiers of disease. Although uncovering the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis remains the ultimate means to silence the pathogenetic process, efforts in understanding how activated macrophages influence disease have led to optimization strategies to selectively target macrophages by agents tailored to specific features of macrophage activation. This approach has two advantages: (a) striking the cell population that mediates/amplifies most of the irreversible tissue destruction and (b) sparing other cells that have no (or only marginal) effects on joint damage.
doi:10.1186/ar2333
PMCID: PMC2246244  PMID: 18177511
2.  Perspectives and limitations of gene expression profiling in rheumatology: new molecular strategies 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2004;6(4):140-146.
The deciphering of the sequence of the human genome has raised the expectation of unravelling the specific role of each gene in physiology and pathology. High-throughput technologies for gene expression profiling provide the first practical basis for applying this information. In rheumatology, with its many diseases of unknown pathogenesis and puzzling inflammatory aspects, these advances appear to promise a significant advance towards the identification of leading mechanisms of pathology. Expression patterns reflect the complexity of the molecular processes and are expected to provide the molecular basis for specific diagnosis, therapeutic stratification, long-term monitoring and prognostic evaluation. Identification of the molecular networks will help in the discovery of appropriate drug targets, and permit focusing on the most effective and least toxic compounds. Current limitations in screening technologies, experimental strategies and bioinformatic interpretation will shortly be overcome by the rapid development in this field. However, gene expression profiling, by its nature, will not provide biochemical information on functional activities of proteins and might only in part reflect underlying genetic dysfunction. Genomic and proteomic technologies will therefore be complementary in their scientific and clinical application.
doi:10.1186/ar1194
PMCID: PMC464885  PMID: 15225356
expression profiling; genomics; molecular strategies; pathway models; signatures
3.  Macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(3):189-202.
The abundance and activation of macrophages in the inflamed synovial membrane/pannus significantly correlates with the severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although unlikely to be the 'initiators' of RA (if not as antigen-presenting cells in early disease), macrophages possess widespread pro-inflammatory, destructive, and remodeling capabilities that can critically contribute to acute and chronic disease. Also, activation of the monocytic lineage is not locally restricted, but extends to systemic parts of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Thus, selective counteraction of macrophage activation remains an efficacious approach to diminish local and systemic inflammation, as well as to prevent irreversible joint damage.
doi:10.1186/ar86
PMCID: PMC130001  PMID: 11094428
cytokine; fibroblast; macrophage; monocyte; nitric oxide; peripheral blood; reactive oxygen species; rheumatoid arthritis; synovial membrane; T-cell

Results 1-4 (4)