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1.  Phylogenomic analysis of the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily 
BMC Genomics  2006;7:98.
Background
The GIY-YIG domain was initially identified in homing endonucleases and later in other selfish mobile genetic elements (including restriction enzymes and non-LTR retrotransposons) and in enzymes involved in DNA repair and recombination. However, to date no systematic search for novel members of the GIY-YIG superfamily or comparative analysis of these enzymes has been reported.
Results
We carried out database searches to identify all members of known GIY-YIG nuclease families. Multiple sequence alignments together with predicted secondary structures of identified families were represented as Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and compared by the HHsearch method to the uncharacterized protein families gathered in the COG, KOG, and PFAM databases. This analysis allowed for extending the GIY-YIG superfamily to include members of COG3680 and a number of proteins not classified in COGs and to predict that these proteins may function as nucleases, potentially involved in DNA recombination and/or repair. Finally, all old and new members of the GIY-YIG superfamily were compared and analyzed to infer the phylogenetic tree.
Conclusion
An evolutionary classification of the GIY-YIG superfamily is presented for the very first time, along with the structural annotation of all (sub)families. It provides a comprehensive picture of sequence-structure-function relationships in this superfamily of nucleases, which will help to design experiments to study the mechanism of action of known members (especially the uncharacterized ones) and will facilitate the prediction of function for the newly discovered ones.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-7-98
PMCID: PMC1564403  PMID: 16646971
2.  Identification of a new family of putative PD-(D/E)XK nucleases with unusual phylogenomic distribution and a new type of the active site 
BMC Genomics  2005;6:21.
Background
Prediction of structure and function for uncharacterized protein families by identification of evolutionary links to characterized families and known structures is one of the cornerstones of genomics. Theoretical assignment of three-dimensional folds and prediction of protein function even at a very general level can facilitate the experimental determination of the molecular mechanism of action and the role that members of a given protein family fulfill in the cell. Here, we predict the three-dimensional fold and study the phylogenomic distribution of members of a large family of uncharacterized proteins classified in the Clusters of Orthologous Groups database as COG4636.
Results
Using protein fold-recognition we found that members of COG4636 are remotely related to Holliday junction resolvases and other nucleases from the PD-(D/E)XK superfamily. Structure modeling and sequence analyses suggest that most members of COG4636 exhibit a new, unusual variant of the putative active site, in which the catalytic Lys residue migrated in the sequence, but retained similar spatial position with respect to other functionally important residues. Sequence analyses revealed that members of COG4636 and their homologs are found mainly in Cyanobacteria, but also in other bacterial phyla. They undergo horizontal transfer and extensive proliferation in the colonized genomes; for instance in Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 they comprise over 2% of all protein-encoding genes. Thus, members of COG4636 appear to be a new type of selfish genetic elements, which may fulfill an important role in the genome dynamics of Cyanobacteria and other species they invaded. Our analyses provide a platform for experimental determination of the molecular and cellular function of members of this large protein family.
Conclusion
After submission of this manuscript, a crystal structure of one of the COG4636 members was released in the Protein Data Bank (code 1wdj; Idaka, M., Wada, T., Murayama, K., Terada, T., Kuramitsu, S., Shirouzu, M., Yokoyama, S.: Crystal structure of Tt1808 from Thermus thermophilus Hb8, to be published). Our analysis of the Tt1808 structure reveals that we correctly predicted all functionally important features of the COG4636 family, including the membership in the PD-(D/E)xK superfamily of nucleases, the three-dimensional fold, the putative catalytic residues, and the unusual configuration of the active site.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6-21
PMCID: PMC551604  PMID: 15720711
3.  Phylogenomic identification of five new human homologs of the DNA repair enzyme AlkB 
BMC Genomics  2003;4:48.
Background
Combination of biochemical and bioinformatic analyses led to the discovery of oxidative demethylation – a novel DNA repair mechanism catalyzed by the Escherichia coli AlkB protein and its two human homologs, hABH2 and hABH3. This discovery was based on the prediction made by Aravind and Koonin that AlkB is a member of the 2OG-Fe2+ oxygenase superfamily.
Results
In this article, we report identification and sequence analysis of five human members of the (2OG-Fe2+) oxygenase superfamily designated here as hABH4 through hABH8. These experimentally uncharacterized and poorly annotated genes were not associated with the AlkB family in any database, but are predicted here to be phylogenetically and functionally related to the AlkB family (and specifically to the lineage that groups together hABH2 and hABH3) rather than to any other oxygenase family. Our analysis reveals the history of ABH gene duplications in the evolution of vertebrate genomes.
Conclusions
We hypothesize that hABH 4–8 could either be back-up enzymes for hABH1-3 or may code for novel DNA or RNA repair activities. For example, enzymes that can dealkylate N3-methylpurines or N7-methylpurines in DNA have not been described. Our analysis will guide experimental confirmation of these novel human putative DNA repair enzymes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-4-48
PMCID: PMC317286  PMID: 14667252
phylogenomics; bioinformatics; dealkylation; demethylation; dioxygenases

Results 1-3 (3)