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1.  Sex chromosome Aneuploides among Men with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Journal of Autoimmunity  2011;38(2-3):J129-J134.
About 90% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are female. We hypothesize that the number of X chromosomes, not sex, is a determinate of risk of SLE. Number of X chromosomes was determined by single nucleotide typing and then confirmed by karyotype or fluorescent in situ hybridization in a large group of men with SLE. Presence of an sry gene was assessed by rtPCR. We calculated 96% confidence intervals using the Adjusted Wald method, and used Bayes’ theorem to estimate the prevalence of SLE among 47,XXY and 46,XX men. Among 316 men with SLE, 7 had 47,XXY and 1 had 46,XX. The rate of Klinefelter’s syndrome (47,XXY) was statistically different from that found in control men and from the known prevalence in the population. The 46,XX man had an sry gene, which encodes the testes determining factor, on an X chromosome as a result of an abnormal crossover during meiosis. In the case of 46,XX, 1 of 316 was statistically different from the known population prevalence of 1 in 20,000 live male births. A previously reported 46,XX man with SLE had a different molecular mechanism in which there were no common gene copy number abnormalities with our patient. Thus, men with SLE are enriched for conditions with additional X chromosomes. Especially since 46,XX men are generally normal males, except for infertility, these data suggest the number of X chromosomes, not phenotypic sex, is responsible for the sex bias of SLE.
doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2011.10.004
PMCID: PMC3309073  PMID: 22154021
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Klinefelter’s syndrome; male 46; XX; female bias; X chromosome
2.  Klinefelter’s Syndrome, 47,XXY, in Male Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Supports a Gene Dose Effect from the X Chromosome 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2008;58(8):2511-2517.
Background
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women. Despite Klinefelter's syndrome (47,XXY) and SLE coexisting in isolated cases, no association has been established with SLE or any other autoimmune disease. Methods: Sex chromosome genotyping was performed in 981 SLE patients (213 were men). A first group of 843 SLE patients from 378 multiplex families and a second group of 138 men with non-familial SLE were evaluated. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and karyotyping in transformed B cell lines enumerated chromosomes for selected cases.
Results
Of 213 men with SLE, five had Klinefelter's syndrome (or 1 in 43). Four of them were heterozygous at X markers. FISH and karyotyping confirmed Klinefelter’s syndrome in the fifth. An overall rate of 235 47,XXY per 10,000 male SLE patients (95%CI: 77 to 539) was found, a dramatic increase over the known prevalence of Klinefelter's syndrome in an unselected population (17 per 10,000 live male births). Asking men with SLE about fertility was highly sensitive (100%) for Klinefelter’s syndrome. All 768 SLE women were heterozygous at X.
Conclusions
47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome, often subclinical, is increased in men with SLE by ~14-fold, compared to its prevalence in men without SLE. Diagnostic vigilance for 47,XXY males in SLE is warranted. These data are the first to associate Klinefelter's syndrome with an autoimmune disease found predominantly in women. The risk of SLE in Klinefelter's syndrome is predicted to be similar to the risk in normal 46,XX women and ~14-fold higher than in 46,XY men, consistent with SLE susceptibility being partly explained by a X chromosome gene dose effect.
doi:10.1002/art.23701
PMCID: PMC2824898  PMID: 18668569
3.  46,X,del(X)(q13) Turner's Syndrome Female with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Pedigree Multiplex for SLE 
Genes and immunity  2009;10(5):478-481.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects females. Recent work demonstrates that men with Klinefelter's syndrome (47,XXY males) have a similar risk of developing SLE as do genotypic females. We present an unusual case of an African American family with two SLE affected individuals in which one of the SLE patients also has Turner's syndrome [46,X,del(X)(q13)]. While not definitive, this family raises interesting questions regarding the role of genes located on the X chromosome in the development of SLE. The paucity of case reports documenting the overlap of SLE with Turner's syndrome while there is and association of male SLE with Klinefelter's syndrome suggests a lower risk of SLE in Turner's females. These observations are consistent with a gene dose effect at X with two X chromosomes (46,XX or 47,XXY) conferring higher risk and one X chromosome (46,XY or 45,XO) conferring lower risk of SLE.
doi:10.1038/gene.2009.37
PMCID: PMC2722751  PMID: 19458623

Results 1-3 (3)