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1.  Periaortic Fat and Cardiovascular Risk: A Comparison of High-Risk Older Adults and Age-Matched Healthy Controls 
Objective
Fat accumulation around the heart and aorta may impact cardiovascular (CV) health. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic investigation to examine potential associations of these fat depots with risk factors for CV events, which has not been done before.
Methods
Pericardial fat, periaortic fat around the ascending aorta (AA), descending aorta (DA) and aortic arch, and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured by MRI in older adults with (n=385, 69±8 years, 52% female) and without (n=50, 69±8 years, 58% female) risk factors for a CV event.
Results
Individuals with CV risk factors exhibited greater fat volumes across all fat depots compared to those without risk factors. In analysis of covariance accounting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, smoking, and BMI, individuals with risk factors possessed higher epicardial, pericardial, AA, DA, and abdominal visceral fat (p<0.05). When matched one-to-one on age, gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI, AA and DA fat were higher in those with versus without CV risk factors (p<0.01).
Conclusions
Older adults with a high risk for CV events have greater periaortic fat than low-risk adults, even after accounting for BMI. More studies are needed to determine whether greater periaortic fat predicts future CV events.
doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.29
PMCID: PMC4143481  PMID: 24525960
pericardial fat; periaortic fat; aging; cardiovascular risk
2.  Caloric Restriction, Aerobic Exercise Training, and Soluble Lectin-like Oxidized LDL Receptor-1 Levels in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women 
Background
Elevated circulating levels of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) have been observed in obese persons and are reduced by weight loss. However, it is not known if combining caloric restriction (CR) with exercise training is better in reducing sLOX-1 levels than CR alone.
Objective
We examined whether the addition of aerobic exercise to a weight loss intervention differentially affects sLOX-1 levels in 61 abdominally obese postmenopausal women randomly assigned to a CR only (n=22), CR + moderate-intensity exercise (n=22), or CR + vigorous-intensity exercise (n=17) intervention for 20 weeks. The caloric deficit was ~2,800 kcal/week for all groups.
Results
The intervention groups were similar at baseline with respect to body weight, body composition, lipids, and blood pressure. However, plasma sLOX-1 levels were higher in the CR only group (99.90 ± 8.23 pg/ml) compared to both the CR + moderate-intensity exercise (69.39 ± 8.23 pg/ml, p=0.01) and CR + vigorous-intensity exercise (72.83 ± 9.36 pg/ml, p=0.03) groups. All three interventions significantly reduced body weight (~14%), body fat, and waist and hip circumferences to a similar degree. These changes were accompanied by a 23% reduction in sLOX-1 levels overall (−19.00 ± 30.08 pg/ml, p<0.0001), which did not differ among intervention groups (p=0.13). Changes in body weight, body fat, and VO2 max were not correlated with changes in sLOX-1 levels. In multiple regression analyses in all women combined, baseline sLOX-1 levels (β = − 0.70 ± 0.06, p<0.0001), age (β = 0.92 ± 0.43, p=0.03) and baseline BMI (β = 1.88 ± 0.66, p=0.006) were independent predictors of the change in sLOX-1 with weight loss.
Conclusions
Weight loss interventions of equal energy deficit have similar effects on sLOX-1 levels in overweight and obese postmenopausal women, with the addition of aerobic exercise having no added benefit when performed in conjunction with CR.
doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.199
PMCID: PMC3023845  PMID: 20856256
obesity; weight loss; caloric restriction; aerobic exercise; soluble receptor

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