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1.  Plasma Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein Levels and Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults: the Health ABC Study 
Hypertension  2009;53(5):846-852.
Arterial stiffness is a prominent feature of vascular aging and is strongly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a key player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, may also play a role in arterial stiffening, but this relationship has not been well studied. Thus, we examined the cross-sectional association between ox-LDL and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, in community-dwelling older adults. Plasma ox-LDL levels and aPWV were measured in 2,295 participants (mean age, 74 yrs; 52% female; 40% black) from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Mean aPWV significantly increased across tertiles of ox-LDL (tertile 1, 869 ± 376 cm/s; tertile 2, 901 ± 394 cm/s; tertile 3, 938 ± 415 cm/s; p=0.002). In multivariate analyses, ox-LDL remained associated with aPWV after adjustment for demographics and traditional CVD risk factors (p=0.008). After further adjustment for hemoglobin A1c, abdominal visceral fat, anti-hypertensive and antilipemic medications, and CRP the association with ox-LDL was attenuated, but remained significant (p=0.01). Results were similar when ox-LDL was expressed in absolute (mg/dL) or relative amounts (percent of LDL). Moreover, individuals in the highest ox-LDL tertile were 30-55% more likely to have high arterial stiffness, defined as aPWV > 75th percentile (p≤0.02). In conclusion, we found that among elderly persons, elevated plasma ox-LDL levels are associated with higher arterial stiffness, independent of CVD risk factors. These data suggest that ox-LDL may be related to the pathogenesis of arterial stiffness.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.127043
PMCID: PMC2692957  PMID: 19332658
aging; epidemiology; aortic stiffness; pulse wave velocity; oxidative stress
2.  RENAL SINUS FAT AND POOR BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN MIDDLE-AGED AND ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS AT RISK FOR CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS 
Hypertension  2010;56(5):901-906.
Fat in the renal sinus (RS), a region of the kidney in which low pressure venous and lymphatic vessels are present, may indirectly influence blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to assess the association between RS fat and control of BP upon receipt of antihypertensive medications.
Two hundred-five (205) participants aged 55 to 85 years at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events underwent magnetic resonance imaging assessments of abdominal and RS fat, measurement of blood pressure, and determination of the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine associations between RS fat, blood pressure, and the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications.
Abdominal fat averaged (416 ± 160 cm3, median and interquartile range (IQR) of 396 cm3 and 308 to 518 cm3); intraperitoneal (IP) fat averaged (141 ± 73 cm3, median and IQR of 129 cm3 and 86 to 194 cm3); and RS fat averaged (4.6 ± 3.2 cm3, median and IQR of 4.2 cm3 and 2.2 to 6.6 cm3). After accounting for age, gender, height, body mass index (BMI), and IP fat, RS fat correlated with the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications (p=0.010), stage II hypertension (p=0.02), and renal size (p=<0.001).
In conclusion, after accounting for other body fat depots and risk factors for hypertension, renal sinus fat volume is associated with the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications and stage II hypertension. These results indicate that further studies are warranted to determine if fat accumulation in the renal sinus promotes hypertension.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.157370
PMCID: PMC3634339  PMID: 20837881
Renal sinus; intraperitoneal fat; hypertension; blood pressure; body mass index

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