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1.  Total and Abdominal Adiposity Are Associated With Inflammation in Older Adults Using a Factor Analysis Approach 
Background.
Obesity-related increases in multiple inflammatory markers may contribute to the persistent subclinical inflammation common with advancing age. However, it is unclear if a specific combination of markers reflects the underlying inflammatory state. We used factor analysis to identify inflammatory factor(s) and examine their associations with adiposity in older adults at risk for disability.
Methods.
Adiponectin, CRP, IL-1ra, IL-1sRII, IL-2sRα, IL-6, IL-6sR, IL-8, IL-15, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, and TNF-α were measured in 179 participants from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (Mean ± SD age 77 ± 4 years, 76% white, 70% women). Body mass index, waist circumference, and total fat mass were assessed by anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Results.
IL-2sRα, sTNFRI, and sTNFRII loaded highest on the first factor (factor 1). CRP, IL-1ra, and IL-6 loaded highest on the second factor (factor 2). Factor 2, but not factor 1, was positively associated with 1-SD increments in waist circumference (β = 0.160 ± 0.057, p = .005), body mass index (β = 0.132 ± 0.053, p = .01), and total fat mass (β = 0.126 ± 0.053, p = .02) after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, site, smoking, anti-inflammatory medications, comorbidity index, health-related quality of life, and physical function. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for grip strength, but only waist circumference remained associated with inflammation after adjusting for total lean mass. There were no significant interactions between adiposity and muscle mass or strength for either factor.
Conclusions.
Greater total and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher levels of an inflammatory factor related to CRP, IL-1ra, and IL-6 in older adults, which may provide a clinically useful measure of inflammation in this population.
doi:10.1093/gerona/gls077
PMCID: PMC3437966  PMID: 22451470
Aging; Adiposity; Inflammation; Muscle impairment; Factor analysis
2.  Pericardial Fat is Associated with Carotid Stiffness in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
Background and Aims
Arterial stiffness is a prominent feature of vascular aging and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fat around the heart and blood vessels (i.e. pericardial fat, Pfat) may contribute to arterial stiffness via a local paracrine effect of adipose tissue on the surrounding vasculature. Thus, we determined the association between Pfat and carotid stiffness in 5,770 participants (mean age 62 yrs, 53% female, 25% African American, 24% Hispanic, and 13% Chinese) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results
Pfat was measured by computed tomography, and ultrasonography of the common carotid artery was used to calculate the distensibility coefficient (DC) and young’s modulus (YM). Lower DC and higher YM values indicate stiffer arteries. Pfat quartile was highly associated with demographic, behavioral, anthropometric, hemodynamic, metabolic, and disease variables in both men and women. After adjusting for height, clinical site, CVD risk factors, and medications, a 1-standard deviation (41.91 cm3) increment in Pfat was associated with a 0.00007±0.00002 1/mmHg lower DC (p=0.0002) in men and a 48.1±15.1 mmHg/mm higher YM in women (p=0.002). Additional adjustment for C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness had only modest effects. More importantly, adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference did not significantly change the overall results.
Conclusion
Higher Pfat is associated with higher carotid stiffness, independent of traditional CVD risk factors and obesity.
doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2009.10.010
PMCID: PMC2929306  PMID: 20153618
pericardial fat; arterial stiffness; distensibility; carotid artery

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