Fat in the renal sinus (RS), a region of the kidney in which low pressure venous and lymphatic vessels are present, may indirectly influence blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to assess the association between RS fat and control of BP upon receipt of antihypertensive medications.
Two hundred-five (205) participants aged 55 to 85 years at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events underwent magnetic resonance imaging assessments of abdominal and RS fat, measurement of blood pressure, and determination of the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine associations between RS fat, blood pressure, and the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications.
Abdominal fat averaged (416 ± 160 cm3, median and interquartile range (IQR) of 396 cm3 and 308 to 518 cm3); intraperitoneal (IP) fat averaged (141 ± 73 cm3, median and IQR of 129 cm3 and 86 to 194 cm3); and RS fat averaged (4.6 ± 3.2 cm3, median and IQR of 4.2 cm3 and 2.2 to 6.6 cm3). After accounting for age, gender, height, body mass index (BMI), and IP fat, RS fat correlated with the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications (p=0.010), stage II hypertension (p=0.02), and renal size (p=<0.001).
In conclusion, after accounting for other body fat depots and risk factors for hypertension, renal sinus fat volume is associated with the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications and stage II hypertension. These results indicate that further studies are warranted to determine if fat accumulation in the renal sinus promotes hypertension.