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Brain and Behavior (1)
Current Psychiatry Reports (1)
Frontiers in Psychiatry (1)
van den Brink, Wim (2)
Booij, Jan (1)
Crunelle, Cleo L (1)
Denys, Damiaan (1)
Emmerik – van Oortmerssen, Katelijne (1)
Goudriaan, Anna E. (1)
Luigjes, Judy (1)
Sjoerds, Zsuzsika (1)
Veltman, Dick J (1)
Veltman, Dick J. (1)
Yücel, Murat (1)
den Brink, Wim (1)
van Holst, Ruth J. (1)
Year of Publication
The Role of Habits and Motivation in Human Drug Addiction: A Reflection
Frontiers in Psychiatry
habits; habit formation; motivation; addiction; goal-directed behavior
Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research
Crunelle, Cleo L
Veltman, Dick J
Emmerik – van Oortmerssen, Katelijne
Brain and Behavior
Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys)function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-)amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine dependence, and excessive caffeine use, comparing stimulant abusers (SAs) to nondrug using healthy controls (HCs). Despite some inconsistencies, most studies indicated altered brain activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and insula in response to reward and punishment, and higher limbic and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/PFC activation during craving and attentional bias paradigms in SAs compared with HCs. Impulsivity in SAs was associated with lower ACC and presupplementary motor area activity compared with HCs, and related to both ventral (amygdala, ventrolateral PFC, insula) and dorsal (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal ACC, posterior parietal cortex) systems. Decision making in SAs was associated with low dorsolateral PFC activity and high orbitofrontal activity. Finally, executive function in SAs was associated with lower activation in frontotemporal regions and higher activation in premotor cortex compared with HCs. It is concluded that the lower activations compared with HCs are likely to reflect the neural substrate of impaired neurocognitive functions, whereas higher activations in SAs compared with HCs are likely to reflect compensatory cognitive control mechanisms to keep behavioral task performance to a similar level as in HCs. However, before final conclusions can be drawn, additional research is needed using neuroimaging in SAs and HCs using larger and more homogeneous samples as well as more comparable task paradigms, study designs, and statistical analyses.
Addiction; fMRI; functional imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; stimulant dependence; stimulants
Brain Imaging Studies in Pathological Gambling
van Holst, Ruth J.
Veltman, Dick J.
Goudriaan, Anna E.
Current Psychiatry Reports
This article reviews the neuroimaging research on pathological gambling (PG). Because of the similarities between substance dependence and PG, PG research has used paradigms similar to those used in substance use disorder research, focusing on reward and punishment sensitivity, cue reactivity, impulsivity, and decision making. This review shows that PG is consistently associated with blunted mesolimbic-prefrontal cortex activation to nonspecific rewards, whereas these areas show increased activation when exposed to gambling-related stimuli in cue exposure paradigms. Very little is known, and hence more research is needed regarding the neural underpinnings of impulsivity and decision making in PG. This review concludes with a discussion regarding the challenges and new developments in the field of neurobiological gambling research and comments on their implications for the treatment of PG.
Pathological gambling; Addiction; Neuroimaging; Neuropsychology
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