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1.  Ribonucleotide Reductase Subunit M2 Predicts Survival in Subgroups of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: Effects of Gender and Smoking Status 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0127600.
Background
Ribonucleotide reductase catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotide diphosphates to deoxyribonucleotide diphosphates. The functional enzyme consists of two subunits - one large (RRM1) and one small (RRM2 or RRM2b) subunit. Expression levels of each subunit have been implicated in prognostic outcomes in several different types of cancers.
Experimental Design
Immunohistochemistry for RRM1 and RRM2 was performed on a lung cancer tissue microarray (TMA) and analyzed. 326 patients from the microarray were included in this study.
Results
In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), RRM2 expression was strongly predictive of disease-specific survival in women, non-smokers and former smokers who had quit at least 10 years prior to being diagnosed with lung cancer. Higher expression was associated with worse survival. This was not the case for men, current smokers and those who had stopped smoking for shorter periods of time. RRM1 was not predictive of survival outcomes in any subset of the patient group.
Conclusion
RRM2, but not RRM1, is a useful predictor of survival outcome in certain subsets of NSCLC patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127600
PMCID: PMC4441434  PMID: 26001082
2.  Expression Levels of Estrogen Receptor Beta in Conjunction with Aromatase Predict Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
Estrogen signaling pathways may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) as evidenced by the expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) in many of these tumors. Here we examine whether ERα and ERβ levels in conjunction with aromatase define patient groups with respect to survival outcomes and possible treatment regimens. Immunohistochemistry was performed on a high-density tissue microarray with resulting data and clinical information available for 377 patients. Patients were subdivided by gender, age and tumor histology, and survival data was determined using the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curves. Neither ERα nor ERβ alone were predictors of survival in NSCLC. However, when coupled with aromatase expression, higher ERβ levels predicted worse survival in patients whose tumors expressed higher levels of aromatase. Although this finding was present in patients of both genders, it was especially pronounced in women ≥ 65 years old, where higher expression of both ERβ and aromatase indicated a markedly worse survival rate than that determined by aromatase alone. Conclusion: Expression of ERβ together with aromatase has predictive value for survival in different gender and age subgroups of NSCLC patients. This predictive value is stronger than each individual marker alone. Our results suggest treatment with aromatase inhibitors alone or combined with estrogen receptor modulators may be of benefit in some subpopulations of these patients.
doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.03.009
PMCID: PMC3175023  PMID: 21511357
NSCLC; tissue microarray; aromatase; estrogen receptor; immunohistochemistry; prognosis

Results 1-2 (2)