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1.  Increased Circulating Interleukin-7 Levels in HIV-1–Infected Women 
Summary
Sex-based differences in CD4 T-cell (CD4) counts are well recognized, but the basis for these differences has not been identified. Conceivably, homeostatic factors may play a role in this process by regulating T-cell maintenance and repletion. Interleukin (IL)-7 is essential for normal T-cell production and homeostasis. We hypothesized that differences in IL-7 might contribute to sex-based differences in CD4 counts. Circulating IL-7 levels were analyzed in 299 HIV-1–infected women and men. Regression analysis estimated that IL-7 levels were 40% higher in women than in men (P = 0.0032) after controlling for CD4 count, age, and race. Given the important role of IL-7 in T-cell development and homeostasis, these findings suggest that higher IL-7 levels may contribute to higher CD4 counts in women.
PMCID: PMC3119025  PMID: 16284535
interleukin-7; sexual dimorphism; CD4-positive T cells; cytokines; sex differences
2.  The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions 
Health Services Research  2005;40(1):19-38.
Objective
To determine whether Medicaid managed care is associated with lower hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions than Medicaid fee-for-service. We also explored whether there was a differential effect of Medicaid managed care by patient's race or ethnicity on the hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions.
Data Sources/Study Setting
Electronic hospital discharge abstracts for all California temporary assistance to needy families (TANF)-eligible Medicaid beneficiaries less than age 65 who were admitted to acute care hospitals in California between 1994 and 1999.
Study Design
We performed a cross-sectional comparison of average monthly rates of admission for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions among TANF-eligible Medicaid beneficiaries in fee-for-service, voluntary managed care, and mandatory managed care.
Data Collection/Extraction Methods
We calculated monthly rates of ambulatory care-sensitive condition admission rates by counting admissions for specified conditions in hospital discharge files and dividing the monthly count of admissions by the size of the at-risk population derived from a separate monthly Medicaid eligibility file. We used multivariate Poisson regression to model monthly hospital admission rates for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions as a function of the Medicaid delivery model controlling for admission month, admission year, patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, and county of residence.
Principal Findings
The adjusted average monthly hospitalization rate for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions per 10,000 was 9.36 in fee-for-service, 6.40 in mandatory managed care, and 5.25 in voluntary managed care (p<.0001 for all pairwise comparisons). The difference in hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Medicaid fee-for-service versus managed care was significantly larger for patients from minority groups than for whites.
Conclusions
Selection bias in voluntary Medicaid managed care programs exaggerates the differences between managed care and fee-for-service, but the 33 percent lower rate of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions found in mandatory managed care compared with fee-for-service suggests that Medicaid managed care is associated with a large reduction in hospital utilization, which likely reflects health benefits. The greater effect of Medicaid managed care for minority compared with white beneficiaries is consistent with other findings that suggest that managed care is associated with improvements in access to ambulatory care for those patients who have traditionally faced the greatest barriers to health care.
doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2005.00340.x
PMCID: PMC1361124  PMID: 15663700
Medicaid; managed care; preventable hospitalizations; ambulatory care sensitive conditions

Results 1-2 (2)