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1.  Effect of Present-on-Admission (POA) Reporting Accuracy on Hospital Performance Assessments Using Risk-Adjusted Mortality 
Health Services Research  2014;50(3):922-938.
Objective
To evaluate how the accuracy of present-on-admission (POA) reporting affects hospital 30-day acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality assessments.
Data Sources
A total of 2005 California patient discharge data (PDD) and vital statistics death files.
Study Design
We compared hospital performance rankings using an established model assessing hospital performance for AMI with (1) a model incorporating POA indicators of whether a secondary condition was a comorbidity or a complication of care, and (2) a simulation analysis that factored POA indicator accuracy into the hospital performance assessment. For each simulation, we changed POA indicators for six major acute risk factors of AMI mortality. The probability of POA being changed depended on patient and hospital characteristics.
Principal Findings
Comparing the performance rankings of 268 hospitals using the established model with that using the POA indicator, 67 hospitals' (25 percent) rank differed by ≥10 percent. POA reporting inaccuracy due to overreporting and underreporting had little additional impact; POA overreporting contributed to 4 percent of hospitals' difference in rank compared to the POA model and POA underreporting contributed to <1 percent difference.
Conclusion
Incorporating POA indicators into risk-adjusted models of AMI care has a substantial impact on hospital rankings of performance that is not primarily attributable to inaccuracy in POA hospital reporting.
doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12239
PMCID: PMC4450937  PMID: 25285372
Present-on-admission; hospital assessments; simulation analysis
2.  The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions 
Health Services Research  2005;40(1):19-38.
Objective
To determine whether Medicaid managed care is associated with lower hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions than Medicaid fee-for-service. We also explored whether there was a differential effect of Medicaid managed care by patient's race or ethnicity on the hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions.
Data Sources/Study Setting
Electronic hospital discharge abstracts for all California temporary assistance to needy families (TANF)-eligible Medicaid beneficiaries less than age 65 who were admitted to acute care hospitals in California between 1994 and 1999.
Study Design
We performed a cross-sectional comparison of average monthly rates of admission for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions among TANF-eligible Medicaid beneficiaries in fee-for-service, voluntary managed care, and mandatory managed care.
Data Collection/Extraction Methods
We calculated monthly rates of ambulatory care-sensitive condition admission rates by counting admissions for specified conditions in hospital discharge files and dividing the monthly count of admissions by the size of the at-risk population derived from a separate monthly Medicaid eligibility file. We used multivariate Poisson regression to model monthly hospital admission rates for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions as a function of the Medicaid delivery model controlling for admission month, admission year, patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, and county of residence.
Principal Findings
The adjusted average monthly hospitalization rate for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions per 10,000 was 9.36 in fee-for-service, 6.40 in mandatory managed care, and 5.25 in voluntary managed care (p<.0001 for all pairwise comparisons). The difference in hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Medicaid fee-for-service versus managed care was significantly larger for patients from minority groups than for whites.
Conclusions
Selection bias in voluntary Medicaid managed care programs exaggerates the differences between managed care and fee-for-service, but the 33 percent lower rate of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions found in mandatory managed care compared with fee-for-service suggests that Medicaid managed care is associated with a large reduction in hospital utilization, which likely reflects health benefits. The greater effect of Medicaid managed care for minority compared with white beneficiaries is consistent with other findings that suggest that managed care is associated with improvements in access to ambulatory care for those patients who have traditionally faced the greatest barriers to health care.
doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2005.00340.x
PMCID: PMC1361124  PMID: 15663700
Medicaid; managed care; preventable hospitalizations; ambulatory care sensitive conditions

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