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1.  Prospective Study on the Clinical Course and Outcomes in Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury 
Critical care medicine  2014;42(7):1676-1687.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. A prospective study using electronic surveillance was conducted at two academic medical centers in the United States with the objective to define the clinical course and outcomes in transfusion-related acute lung injury cases.
Prospective case study with controls.
University of California, San Francisco and Mayo Clinic, Rochester.
We prospectively enrolled 89 patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury, 164 transfused controls, and 145 patients with possible transfusion-related acute lung injury.
Measurements and Main Results
Patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury had fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, and prolonged hypoxemia compared with controls. Of the patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury, 29 of 37 patients (78%) required initiation of mechanical ventilation and 13 of 53 (25%) required initiation of vasopressors. Patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury and possible transfusion-related acute lung injury had an increased duration of mechanical ventilation and increased days in the ICU and hospital compared with controls. There were 15 of 89 patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury (17%) who died, whereas 61 of 145 patients with possible transfusion-related acute lung injury (42%) died and 7 of 164 of controls (4%) died. Patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury had evidence of more systemic inflammation with increases in circulating neutrophils and a decrease in platelets compared with controls. Patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury and possible transfusion-related acute lung injury also had a statistically significant increase in plasma interleukin-8, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist posttransfusion compared with controls.
In conclusion, transfusion-related acute lung injury produced a condition resembling the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and was associated with substantial in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury compared with transfused controls. Patients with possible transfusion-related acute lung injury had even higher in-hospital morbidity and mortality, suggesting that clinical outcomes in this group are mainly influenced by the underlying acute lung injury risk factor(s).
PMCID: PMC4284060  PMID: 24776608
acute lung injury; human leukocyte antigen; human neutrophil antigen; pulmonary edema; transfusion reaction; transfusion-related acute lung injury
2.  Citalopram is not Effective Therapy for Non-Depressed Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome 
Background & Aims
Data are conflicting on the benefit of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); the role of visceral sensitivity in IBS pathophysiology is unclear. We assessed the effects of citalopram and the relationships between, symptoms, and quality of life (QOL), and rectal sensitivity in non-depressed patients with IBS.
Patients from primary, secondary and tertiary care centers were randomly assigned to groups given citalopram (20 mg/day for 4 weeks, then 40 mg/day for 4 weeks) or placebo. The study was double masked with concealed allocation. Symptoms were assessed weekly; IBS-QOL and rectal sensation were determined from barostat measurements made at the beginning and end of the study.
Patients that received citalopram did not have a higher rate of adequate relief from IBS symptoms than subjects that received placebo (12/27, 44% vs 15/27, 56% respectively; P=0.59), regardless of IBS subtype. The odds ratio for weekly response to citalopram vs placebo was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61–1.04). Citalopram did not reduce specific symptoms or increase IBS-QOL scores; it had no effect on rectal compliance and a minimal effect on sensation. Changes in IBS-QOL score and pressure-eliciting pain were correlated (r=0.33, 95% CI 0.03–0.57); changes in symptoms and rectal sensitivity or IBS-QOL scores were not correlated.
Citalopram was not superior to placebo in treating non-depressed IBS patients. Changes in symptoms were not correlated with changes in rectal sensation assessed by barostat; Any benefit of citalopram in non-depressed IBS patients is likely to be modest.
PMCID: PMC2818161  PMID: 19765674
3.  Self-Perception of Body Fat Changes and HAART Adherence in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study 
AIDS and behavior  2008;13(1):53-59.
To determine the association of self-perceived fat gain or fat loss in central and peripheral body sites with adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-seropositive women. 1,671 women from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study who reported HAART use between April 1999 and March 2006 were studied. Adherence was defined as report of taking HAART ≥ 95% of the time during the prior 6 months. Participant report of any increase or decrease in the chest, abdomen, or upper back in the prior 6 months defined central fat gain and central fat loss, respectively. Report of any increase or decrease in the face, arms, legs or buttocks in the prior 6 months defined peripheral fat gain or peripheral fat loss. Younger age, being African-American (vs. White non-Hispanic), a history of IDU, higher HIV RNA at the previous visit, and alcohol consumption were significant predictors of HAART non-adherence (P <0.05). After multivariate adjustment, self-perception of central fat gain was associated with a 1.5-fold increased odds of HAART non-adherence compared to no change. Perception of fat gain in the abdomen was the strongest predictor of HAART non-adherence when the individual body sites were studied. Women who perceive central fat gain particularly in the abdomen are at risk for decreased adherence to HAART despite recent evidence to suggest that HIV and specific antiretroviral drugs are more commonly associated with fat loss than fat gain.
PMCID: PMC2902995  PMID: 18688706
Lipodystrophy; HIV; Women; HAART adherence; body image perception
4.  Clinical predictors of early second event in patients with clinically isolated syndrome 
Journal of Neurology  2009;256(7):1061-1066.
This study aimed to determine the predictors of increased risk of a second demyelinating event within the first year of an initial demyelinating event (IDE) suggestive of early multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) seen at the UCSF MS Center within one year of the IDE were studied. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to analyze predictors of having a second event within 1 year of the IDE. Of 330 patients with MS/CIS, 111 had a second event within 1 year. Non-white race/ethnicity (HR = 2.39, 95% CI [1.58, 3.60], p < 0.0001) and younger age (HR for each 10-year decrease in age = 1.51, 95% CI [1.28, 1.80], p < 0.0001) were strongly associated with an increased risk of having a second event within one year of onset. Having a lower number of functional systems affected by the IDE was also associated with an increased risk of early second event (HR for every one less FS involved = 1.31, 95% CI [1.06, 1.61], p = 0.011). These results were similar after adjusting for treatment of the IDE with steroids and disease-modifying therapy. Non-white race/ethnicity, younger age, and a lower number of FS affected by the IDE are associated with a substantially increased hazard ratio for a second demyelinating event within 1 year. Since early relapse is predictive of worse long-term outcome, identifying and treating such patients after the IDE may be of benefit to them.
PMCID: PMC2708331  PMID: 19252775
Multiple sclerosis; Epidemiology; Clinical studies; Demyelinating diseases

Results 1-4 (4)