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1.  Inflammation and Mortality in HIV-infected Adults: Analysis of the FRAM Study Cohort 
Objective
To determine the association of inflammatory markers, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP), with 5-year mortality risk.
Methods
Vital status was ascertained in 922 HIV-infected participants from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection. Multivariable logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) after adjustment for demographic, cardiovascular and HIV-related factors.
Results
Over a 5-year period, HIV-infected participants with fibrinogen levels in the highest tertile(>406mg/dL) had 2.6-fold higher adjusted odds of death than those with fibrinogen in the lowest tertile(<319mg/dL). Those with high CRP(>3mg/L) had 2.7-fold higher adjusted odds of death than those with CRP<1mg/L. When stratified by CD4 count category, fibrinogen (as a linear variable) remained independently associated [OR(95% confidence intervals) per 100mg/dL increase in fibrinogen: 1.93(1.57,2.37);1.43(1.14,1.79);1.43(1.14,1.81);and 1.30(1.04,1.63) for CD4 <200,200–350,>350–500, and >500cells/μL, respectively. Higher CRP also remained associated with higher odds of death overall and within each CD4 subgroup.
Conclusion
Fibrinogen and CRP are strong and independent predictors of mortality in HIV-infected adults. Our findings suggest that even in those with relatively preserved CD4 counts >500cells/μL, inflammation remains an important risk factor for mortality. Further investigation should determine whether interventions to reduce inflammation might decrease mortality risk in HIV-infected individuals.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181e66216
PMCID: PMC2955817  PMID: 20581689
HIV; inflammation; C-reactive protein; fibrinogen; mortality
2.  White/Black Racial Differences in Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease and Death 
The American journal of medicine  2009;122(7):672-678.
Background
End-stage renal disease disproportionately affects black persons, but it is unknown when in the course of chronic kidney disease racial differences arise. Understanding the natural history of racial differences in kidney disease may help guide efforts to reduce disparities.
Methods
We compared white/black differences in the risk of end-stage renal disease and death by level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline in a national sample of 2,015,891 veterans between 2001 to 2005.
Results
Rates of end-stage renal disease among black patients exceeded those among white patients at all levels of baseline eGFR. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for end-stage renal disease associated with black versus white race for patients with an eGFR ≥90, 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29, and <15 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively were 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-2.65), 2.30 (95% CI, 2.02-2.61), 3.08 (95% CI, 2.74-3.46), 2.47 (95% CI, 2.26-2.70), 1.86 (95% CI, 1.75-1.98), and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.12- 1.34). We observed a similar pattern for mortality, with equal or higher rates of death among black persons at all levels of eGFR. The highest risk of mortality associated with black race was also observed among those with an eGFR 45-59 mL/min/1.73m2 (HR 1.32, 95% CI, 1.27-1.36).
Conclusion
Racial differences in the risk of end-stage renal disease appear early in the course of kidney disease and are not explained by a survival advantage among blacks. Efforts to identify and slow progression of chronic kidney disease at earlier stages may be needed to reduce racial disparities.
doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.11.021
PMCID: PMC2749005  PMID: 19559170
kidney disease; racial disparities; mortality

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