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1.  Serological Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Positive and High-Risk HIV-Negative Women 
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology  2006;13(4):511-519.
Serial measurement of antibodies has not been used to provide evidence of active viral replication of human papillomavirus (HPV). Serum specimens from sequential study visits contributed by 642 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 116 HIV-negative participants enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study were used to detect significant rises in HPV type 16 (HPV-16) antibody levels. Factors associated with a significant rise were identified using multivariable logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. Among HIV-positive women, 8.3% of 1,997 pairs showed antibody rises, compared to 6.1% of 361 pairs among HIV-negative women (P = 0.191). For HIV-positive women, rises were associated with current (odds ratio [OR], 23.4; P < 0.001) or past (OR, 8.9; P < 0.001) HPV-16 infection relative to never being HPV-16 infected and with CD4+ cell counts (OR per 100-cell increase, 0.8; P < 0.001) but not with sexual behavior. For HIV-negative women, rises were associated with past (OR, 10.9; P = 0.033) HPV-16 infection relative to no HPV-16, current cigarette smoking (OR, 5.0; P = 0.029) relative to no smoking history, and having 6 to 10 lifetime sexual partners compared to 0 to 5 partners (OR, 9.9; P = 0.036). Serial measurement of HPV-16 serum antibodies is a useful tool for identifying active HPV-16 viral replication. Rises among HIV-positive women may more often result from reactivation of a latent HPV infection in the context of HIV-induced immunosuppression, while rises among HIV-negative women may more often result from reinfection with HPV.
doi:10.1128/CVI.13.4.511-519.2006
PMCID: PMC1459636  PMID: 16603621

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