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1.  17 Beta-Estradiol Differentially Affects Left Ventricular and Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Following Myocardial Infarction and Pressure Overload 
Journal of cardiac failure  2008;14(3):245-253.
Background
We have shown previously that 17β-estradiol (E2) increases left ventricular (LV) and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy following myocardial infarction (MI). However, E2 decreases hypertrophy in pressure overload models. We hypothesized that the effect of estrogen on cardiac hypertrophy was dependent on the type of hypertrophic stimulus.
Methods
Ovariectomized wild type female mice (n=192) were given vehicle or E2 treatment followed by coronary ligation (MI), transverse aortic constriction (TAC), or sham operation. Signaling pathway activation was studied at 3, 24, and 48 hours while echocardiography and hemodynamic studies were performed at 14 days.
Results
MI induced early but transient activation of p38 and p42/44 MAPK pathways, whereas TAC induced sustained activation of both pathways. E2 had no effect on these pathways, but increased Stat3 activation following MI while decreasing Stat3 activation following TAC. MI caused LV dilation, and decreased fractional shortening (FS), that were unaltered by E2. TAC caused LV dilation, reduced FS, and increased LV mass, but in this model, E2 improved these parameters. Following MI, E2 led to increases in myocyte cross-sectional area, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene expression, but E2 diminished TAC-induced increases ANP and β-MHC gene expression.
Conclusions
These data demonstrate that the effects of E2 on LV and myocyte remodeling depend on the nature of the hypertrophic stimulus. The opposing influence of E2 on hypertrophy in these models may, in part, result from differential effects of E2 on Stat3 activation. Further work will be necessary to explore this and other potential mechanisms by which estrogen affects hypertrophy in these models.
doi:10.1016/j.cardfail.2007.10.024
PMCID: PMC4181711  PMID: 18381189
Estrogen; LV Remodeling; Myocyte Hypertrophy; Myocardial Infarction; Pressure Overload; Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription
2.  Association of prolonged QRS duration with ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT-II) 
OBJECTIVES
We evaluated the prognostic significance of prolonged QRS duration (QRSd) relative to arrhythmic outcomes in medically- and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)-treated patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) II.
BACKGROUND
There is conflicting literature on the relationship between prolonged QRSd and arrhythmic events, including sudden cardiac death (SCD), in heart failure patients with or without ICDs.
METHODS
Using a Cox-proportional hazards model adjusting for ejection fraction (EF), heart failure class, and blood urea nitrogen, we estimated the association of prolonged QRSd ≥ 140 milliseconds with SCD in the medically-treated arm, and SCD or first ICD therapy for rapid ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF, cycle length ≤ 260 ms) in the ICD-treated arm.
RESULTS
In the medically-treated arm, prolonged QRSd was a significant independent predictor of SCD (HR 2.12 [95% CI 1.20–3.76], p = 0.01). However, in the ICD-treated arm, prolonged QRSd did not predict SCD or rapid VT/VF (HR 0.77 [95% CI 0.47–1.24], p = 0.28). The difference in the prognostic effect of prolonged QRSd in these two groups was significant (p<0.01). These results were not affected by varying the cycle length defining rapid VT/VF or the duration defining QRSd prolongation.
CONCLUSIONS
In patients with prior myocardial infarction and EF ≤ 30%, prolonged QRSd does not predict SCD/VT/VF in ICD-treated patients, but does predict SCD in medically-treated patients. This underscores the non-equivalence of VT/VF and SCD, and the need for caution in inferring risk of SCD when using non-randomized databases that include only patients with ICDs.
doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2008.02.013
PMCID: PMC2692879  PMID: 18534364
Death; sudden; defibrillation; tachyarrhythmias; risk factors; QRS duration
3.  Competing risk and heterogeneity of treatment effect in clinical trials 
Trials  2008;9:30.
It has been demonstrated that patients enrolled in clinical trials frequently have a large degree of variation in their baseline risk for the outcome of interest. Thus, some have suggested that clinical trial results should routinely be stratified by outcome risk using risk models, since the summary results may otherwise be misleading. However, variation in competing risk is another dimension of risk heterogeneity that may also underlie treatment effect heterogeneity. Understanding the effects of competing risk heterogeneity may be especially important for pragmatic comparative effectiveness trials, which seek to include traditionally excluded patients, such as the elderly or complex patients with multiple comorbidities. Indeed, the observed effect of an intervention is dependent on the ratio of outcome risk to competing risk, and these risks – which may or may not be correlated – may vary considerably in patients enrolled in a trial. Further, the effects of competing risk on treatment effect heterogeneity can be amplified by even a small degree of treatment related harm. Stratification of trial results along both the competing and the outcome risk dimensions may be necessary if pragmatic comparative effectiveness trials are to provide the clinically useful information their advocates intend.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-9-30
PMCID: PMC2423182  PMID: 18498644

Results 1-3 (3)