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1.  Differential Muscle Gene Expression as a Function of Disease Progression in Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats 
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a polygenic non-obese model of type 2 diabetes, is a useful surrogate for study of diabetes-related changes independent of obesity. GK rats and appropriate controls were killed at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks post-weaning and differential muscle gene expression along with body and muscle weights, plasma hormones and lipids, and blood cell measurements were carried out. Gene expression analysis identified 204 genes showing 2-fold or greater differences between GK and controls in at least 3 ages. Array results suggested increased oxidative capacity in GK muscles, as well as differential gene expression related to insulin resistance, which was also indicated by HOMA-IR measurements. In addition, potential new biomarkers in muscle gene expression were identified that could be either a cause or consequence of T2DM. Furthermore, we demonstrate here the presence of chronic inflammation evident both systemically and in the musculature, despite the absence of obesity.
doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.02.016
PMCID: PMC3093670  PMID: 21356272
type 2 diabetes; skeletal muscle; inflammation; microarrays; gene expression

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