PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-10 (10)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Delineation of the Clinical, Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Novel JAM3 Mutations Underlying the Autosomal Recessive Hemorrhagic Destruction of the Brain, Subependymal Calcification and Congenital Cataracts 
Human mutation  2013;34(3):498-505.
We have recently shown that the hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification and congenital cataracts is caused by biallelic mutations in the gene encoding junctional adhesion molecule 3 (JAM3) protein. Affected members from three new families underwent detailed clinical examination including imaging of the brain. Affected individuals presented with a distinctive phenotype comprising hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification and congenital cataracts. All patients had a catastrophic clinical course resulting in death in 7 out of 10 affected individuals. Sequencing the coding exons of JAM3 revealed three novel homozygous mutations: c.2T>G (p.M1R), c.346G>A (p.E116K) and c.656G>A (p.C219Y). The p.M1R mutation affects the start codon and therefore is predicted to impair protein synthesis. Cellular studies showed that the p.C219Y mutation resulted in a significant retention of the mutated protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a trafficking defect. The p.E116K mutant traffics normally to the plasma membrane as the wild type and may have lost its function due to the lack of interaction with an interacting partner. Our data further support the importance of JAM3 in the development and function of the vascular system and the brain.
doi:10.1002/humu.22263
PMCID: PMC3951164  PMID: 23255084
brain; subependymal calcification; congenital cataract; JAM3
2.  Identification of Mutations Underlying 20 Inborn Errors of Metabolism in the United Arab Emirates Population 
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are frequently encountered by physicians in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). However, the mutations underlying a large number of these disorders have not yet been determined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the mutations underlying a number of IEM disorders among UAE residents from both national and expatriate families. A case series of patients from 34 families attending the metabolic clinic at Tawam Hospital were clinically evaluated, and molecular testing was carried out to determine their causative mutations. The mutation analysis was carried out at molecular genetics diagnostic laboratories. Thirty-eight mutations have been identified as responsible for twenty IEM disorders, including in the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, steroids, metal transport and mitochondrial energy metabolism, and lysosomal storage disorders. Nine of the identified mutations are novel, including two missense mutations, three premature stop codons and four splice site mutations. Mutation analysis of IEM disorders in the UAE population has an important impact on molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling for families affected by these disorders.
doi:10.1089/gtmb.2011.0175
PMCID: PMC3354585  PMID: 22106832
3.  Prevalence and Novel Mutations of Lysosomal Storage Disorders in United Arab Emirates 
JIMD Reports  2013;10:1-9.
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are rare entities of recessive inheritance. The presence of a “founder” mutation in isolated communities with a high degree of consanguinity (e.g., tribes in the Middle East North Africa, MENA, region) is expected to lead to unusually high disease prevalence. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LSD and report their mutation spectrum in UAE. Between 1995 and 2010, 119 patients were diagnosed with LSD (65 Emiratis and 54 non-Emiratis). Genotyping was performed in 59 (50 %) patients (39 Emirati from 17 families and 20 non-Emiratis from 17 families). The prevalence of LSD in Emiratis was 26.9/100,000 live births. Sphingolipidoses were relatively common (9.8/100,000), with GM1-gangliosidosis being the most prevalent (4.7/100,000). Of the Mucopolysaccharidoses VI, IVA and IIIB were the predominant subtypes (5.5/100,000). Compared to Western countries, the prevalence of fucosidosis, Batten disease, and α-mannosidosis was 40-, sevenfold, and fourfold higher in UAE, respectively. The prevalence of Pompe disease (2.7/100,000) was similar to The Netherlands, but only the infantile subtype was found in UAE. Sixteen distinct LSD mutations were identified in 39 Emirati patients. Eight (50 %) mutations were reported only in Emirati, of which three were novel [c.1694G>T in the NAGLU gene, c.1336 C>T in the GLB1 gene, and homozygous deletions in the CLN3 gene]. Twenty-seven (42 %) patients were clustered in five of the 70 Emirati tribes. These findings highlight the need for tribal-based premarital testing and genetic counseling.
doi:10.1007/8904_2012_182
PMCID: PMC3755583  PMID: 23430803
4.  Identification of New Alleles and the Determination of Alleles and Genotypes Frequencies at the CYP2D6 Gene in Emiratis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28943.
CYP2D6 belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes and plays an important role in the metabolism of 20–25% of clinically used drugs including antidepressants. It displays inter-individual and inter-ethnic variability in activity ranging from complete absence to excessive activity which causes adverse drug reactions and toxicity or therapy failure even at normal drug doses. This variability is due to genetic polymorphisms which form poor, intermediate, extensive or ultrarapid metaboliser phenotypes. This study aimed to determine CYP2D6 alleles and their frequencies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) local population. CYP2D6 alleles and genotypes were determined by direct DNA sequencing in 151 Emiratis with the majority being psychiatric patients on antidepressants. Several new alleles have been identified and in total we identified seventeen alleles and 49 genotypes. CYP2D6*1 (wild type) and CYP2D6*2 alleles (extensive metaboliser phenotype) were found with frequencies of 39.1% and 12.2%, respectively. CYP2D6*41 (intermediate metaboliser) occurred in 15.2%. Homozygous CYP2D6*4 allele (poor metaboliser) was found with a frequency of 2% while homozygous and heterozygous CYP2D6*4 occurred with a frequency of 9%. CYP2D6*2xn, caused by gene duplication (ultrarapid metaboliser) had a frequency of 4.3%. CYP2D6 gene duplication/multiduplication occurred in 16% but only 11.2% who carried more than 2 active functional alleles were considered ultrarapid metabolisers. CYP2D6 gene deletion in one copy occurred in 7.5% of the study group. In conclusion, CYP2D6 gene locus is heterogeneous in the UAE national population and no significant differences have been identified between the psychiatric patients and controls.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028943
PMCID: PMC3245235  PMID: 22216145
5.  Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control Is Involved in the Mechanism of Endoglin-Mediated Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26206.
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition affecting the vascular system and is characterised by epistaxis, arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectases. This disorder affects approximately 1 in 8,000 people worldwide. Significant morbidity is associated with this condition in affected individuals, and anaemia can be a consequence of repeated haemorrhages from telangiectasia in the gut and nose. In the majority of the cases reported, the condition is caused by mutations in either ACVRL1 or endoglin genes, which encode components of the TGF-beta signalling pathway. Numerous missense mutations in endoglin have been reported as causative defects for HHT but the exact underlying cellular mechanisms caused by these mutations have not been fully established despite data supporting a role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control machinery. For this reason, we examined the subcellular trafficking of twenty-five endoglin disease-causing missense mutations. The mutant proteins were expressed in HeLa and HEK293 cell lines, and their subcellular localizations were established by confocal fluorescence microscopy alongside the analysis of their N-glycosylation profiles. ER quality control was found to be responsible in eight (L32R, V49F, C53R, V125D, A160D, P165L, I271N and A308D) out of eleven mutants located on the orphan extracellular domain in addition to two (C363Y and C382W) out of thirteen mutants in the Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain. In addition, a single intracellular domain missense mutant was examined and found to traffic predominantly to the plasma membrane. These findings support the notion of the involvement of the ER's quality control in the mechanism of a significant number, but not all, missense endoglin mutants found in HHT type 1 patients. Other mechanisms including loss of interactions with signalling partners as well as adverse effects on functional residues are likely to be the cause of the mutant proteins' loss of function.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026206
PMCID: PMC3194820  PMID: 22022569
6.  SRD5A3 is required for the conversion of polyprenol to dolichol, essential for N-linked protein glycosylation 
Cell  2010;142(2):203-217.
SUMMARY
N-linked glycosylation is the most frequent modification of secreted and membrane-bound proteins in eukaryotic cells, disruption of which is the basis of the Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG). We describe a new type of CDG caused by mutations in the steroid 5α-reductase type 3 (SRD5A3) gene. Patients have mental retardation, ophthalmologic and cerebellar defects. We found that SRD5A3 is necessary for the reduction of the alpha-isoprene unit of polyprenols to form dolichols, required for synthesis of dolichol-linked monosaccharides and the oligosaccharide precursor used for N-glycosylation. The presence of residual dolichol in cells depleted for this enzyme suggests the existence of an unexpected alternative pathway for dolichol de novo biosynthesis. Our results thus suggest that SRD5A3 is likely to be the long-sought polyprenol reductase and reveal the genetic basis of one of the earliest steps in protein N-linked glycosylation.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.001
PMCID: PMC2940322  PMID: 20637498
N-glycosylation; dolichol; polyprenol; SRD5A3
7.  A novel statin-mediated “prenylation block-and-release” assay provides insight into the membrane targeting mechanisms of small GTPases 
Ras super-family small GTPases regulate diverse cellular processes such as vesicular transport and signal transduction. Critical to these activities is the ability of these proteins to target to specific intracellular membranes. To allow association with membranes Ras-related GTPases are post-translationally modified by covalent attachment of prenyl groups to conserved cysteine residues at or near their C-terminus. Here we used the HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor mevastatin to develop a ‘prenylation block-and-release’ assay that allows membrane targeting of prenylated proteins to be visualized in living cells. Using this assay we investigated the cytosol to membrane targeting of several small GTPases to compartments of the secretory and endocytic pathways. We found that all Rabs tested were targeted directly to the membrane on which they reside at steady-state and not via an intermediate location as reported for Ras and Rho proteins. However, we observed that the kinetics of cytosol to membrane targeting differed for each Rab tested. Comparison of the mevastatin sensitivity and kinetics of membrane targeting of Rab23, Rab23 prenylation motif mutants and H-Ras revealed that these parameters are strongly dependent upon the prenyl transferase with Rab geranylgeranyl transferase substrates exhibiting higher sensitivity and requiring greater time to recover from mevastatin inhibition than farnesyl transferase substrates. We propose that this assay is a useful tool to investigate the kinetics, biological functions and the mechanisms of membrane targeting of prenylated proteins.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.05.045
PMCID: PMC2908739  PMID: 20471365
GTPases; Prenylation; Statin; Trafficking; Rab proteins
8.  Trafficking defects and loss of ligand binding are the underlying causes of all reported DDR2 missense mutations found in SMED-SL patients 
Human Molecular Genetics  2010;19(11):2239-2250.
Spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia (SMED) with short limbs and abnormal calcifications (SMED-SL) is a rare, autosomal recessive human growth disorder, characterized by disproportionate short stature, short limbs, short broad fingers, abnormal metaphyses and epiphyses, platyspondyly and premature calcifications. Recently, three missense mutations and one splice-site mutation in the DDR2 gene were identified as causative genetic defects for SMED-SL, but the underlying cellular and biochemical mechanisms were not explored. Here we report a novel DDR2 missense mutation, c.337G>A (p.E113K), that causes SMED-SL in two siblings in the United Arab Emirates. Another DDR2 missense mutation, c.2254C>T (p.R752C), matching one of the previously reported SMED-SL mutations, was found in a second affected family. DDR2 is a plasma membrane receptor tyrosine kinase that functions as a collagen receptor. We expressed DDR2 constructs with the identified point mutations in human cell lines and evaluated their localization and functional properties. We found that all SMED-SL missense mutants were defective in collagen-induced receptor activation and that the three previously reported mutants (p.T713I, p.I726R and p.R752C) were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. The novel mutant (p.E113K), in contrast, trafficked normally, like wild-type DDR2, but failed to bind collagen. This finding is in agreement with our recent structural data identifying Glu113 as an important amino acid in the DDR2 ligand-binding site. Our data thus demonstrate that SMED-SL can result from at least two different loss-of-function mechanisms: namely defects in DDR2 targeting to the plasma membrane or the loss of its ligand-binding activity.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq103
PMCID: PMC2865377  PMID: 20223752
9.  Defective cellular trafficking of missense NPR-B mutants is the major mechanism underlying acromesomelic dysplasia-type Maroteaux 
Human Molecular Genetics  2008;18(2):267-277.
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) comprise a family of structurally related but genetically distinct hormones that regulate a variety of physiological processes such as cardiac growth, blood pressure, axonal pathfinding and endochondral ossification leading to the formation of vertebrae and long bones. The biological actions of NPs are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) A, B and C that are located on the cell surface. Mutations in NPR-B have been shown to cause acromesomelic dysplasia-type Maroteaux (AMDM), a growth disorder in humans and severe dwarfism in mice. We hypothesized that missense mutations of NPR-B associated with AMDM primarily affect NPR-B function by the arrest of receptor trafficking at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), due to conformational change, rather than an impairment of ligand binding, transmission of signal through the membrane or catalytic activity. Twelve missense mutations found in AMDM patients and cn/cn mice were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and transiently overexpressed in HeLa cells. Confocal microscopy revealed that 11 out of 12 mutants were retained in the ER. Determination of the ligand-dependent cGMP response confirmed that ER-retained NPR-B mutants are non-functional. Meanwhile, the only cell surface-targeted NPR-B missense mutant (D176E) displayed greatly reduced enzymatic activity due to impaired ligand binding. Thus, in the majority of cases of AMDM associated with missense NPR-B mutation, disease appears to result from defects in the targeting of the ER receptor to the plasma membrane.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn354
PMCID: PMC2638773  PMID: 18945719
10.  Membrane Targeting of Rab GTPases Is Influenced by the Prenylation MotifD⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2003;14(5):1882-1899.
Rab GTPases are regulators of membrane traffic. Rabs specifically associate with target membranes via the attachment of (usually) two geranylgeranyl groups in a reaction involving Rab escort protein and Rab geranylgeranyl transferase. In contrast, related GTPases are singly prenylated by CAAX prenyl transferases. We report that di-geranylgeranyl modification is important for targeting of Rab5a and Rab27a to endosomes and melanosomes, respectively. Transient expression of EGFP-Rab5 mutants containing two prenylatable cysteines (CGC, CC, CCQNI, and CCA) in HeLa cells did not affect endosomal targeting or function, whereas mono-cysteine mutants (CSLG, CVLL, or CVIM) were mistargeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and were nonfunctional. Similarly, Rab27aCVLL mutant is also mistargeted to the ER and transgenic expression on a Rab27a null background (Rab27aash) did not rescue the coat color phenotype, suggesting that Rab27aCVLL is not functional in vivo. CAAX prenyl transferase inhibition and temperature-shift experiments further suggest that Rabs, singly or doubly modified are recruited to membranes via a Rab escort protein/Rab geranylgeranyl transferase-dependent mechanism that is distinct from the insertion of CAAX-containing GTPases. Finally, we show that both singly and doubly modified Rabs are extracted from membranes by RabGDIα and propose that the mistargeting of Rabs to the ER results from loss of targeting information.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-10-0639
PMCID: PMC165084  PMID: 12802062

Results 1-10 (10)