Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes.
In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs) from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002), with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan.
The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected.
The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.
Recent studies supported associations between four NMDA-receptor-mediated signalling genes (D-amino acid oxidase, DAO; D-amino acid oxidase activator, DAOA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma isoform, PPP3CC; dystrobrevin-binding protein 1, DTNBP1) and schizophrenia susceptibility, even though with contrasting results.
In an attempt to replicate these findings for the first time in an Italian population, a panel of 32 tagSNPs was analysed in a representative case-control sample involving 879 subjects.
An association in the allele frequency was observed for the estimated PPP3CC CAG triplotype in the SNP window rs4872499 T/C-rs11780915 A/G-rs13271367 G/A (pcorrect = 0.001). Similarly, the clustered genotype frequencies of the estimated/phased CAG triplotype differed between cases and controls (p = 0.004), with the carriers having a higher frequency in the control population (p = 0.002, odd ratio OR = 0.59, 95% confident interval CI: 0.43-0.82).
Following the phenotypic dissection strategy, the analysis of single SNPs evidenced a protective effect in males of rs11780915 and rs13271367 in PPP3CC gene (pcorrect = 0.02, pcorrect = 0.04 respectively). Moreover the estimated/phased GT diplotype (rs2070586A/G-rs3741775G/T) carriers of the DAO gene were more highly represented in female controls (p = 0.017, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37-0.90), as were the estimated/phased CAG triplotype carriers of the PPP3CC gene in females (p = 0.01, OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.87). In addition, we performed an interaction analysis, and a 66% (p = 0.003, OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.70) lower risk of developing schizophrenia for female (CAG + GT) carriers versus non-CAG or -GT carriers was observed. For DTNBP1, we found a protective effect in males for the rs6459409 (pcorrect = 0.02) and the estimated/phased CT diplotype (rs6459409-rs9476886) carriers (p = 3x10-4, OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.70).
In relation to diagnostic subtypes, the estimated/phased DAO GT diplotype and PPP3CC CAG triplotype female carriers were found to show relative risk ratio (RRR) values of 0.52 and 0.54 lower risk for a paranoid phenotype respectively.
Although the results are preliminary and needed replication in a larger sample, this study suggests that NMDA receptor-mediated signalling genes (DAO, PPP3CC, DTNBP1) might be involved in schizophrenia pathogenic mechanisms related to gender.
tagSNPs; Schizophrenia; Glutamate neurotransmission; DAO; DAOA; PPP3CC; DTNBP1; Association study; Phenotypic dissection
Somatic variants, which occur in the genome of all cells, are well accepted to play a critical role in cancer development, as their accumulation in genes could affect cell proliferations and cell cycle.
In order to understand the role of somatic mutations in human colorectal cancers, we characterized the mutation spectrum in two colorectal tumor tissues and their matched normal tissues, by analyzing deep-sequenced transcriptome data.
We found a higher mutation rate of somatic variants in tumor tissues in comparison with normal tissues, but no trend was observed for mutation properties. By applying a series of stringent filters, we identified 418 genes with tumor specific disruptive somatic variants. Of these genes, three genes in mucin protein family (MUC2, MUC4, and MU12) are of particular interests. It has been reported that the expression of mucin proteins was correlated with the progression of colorectal cancer therefore somatic variants within those genes can interrupt their normal expression and thus contribute to the tumorigenesis.
Our findings provide evidence of the utility of RNA-Seq in mutation screening in cancer studies, and suggest a list of candidate genes for future colorectal cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Colorectal cancers; Mutation spectrum; RNA-Seq; Transcriptome
The editors of BMC Medical Genetics would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 13 (2012).
Many studies have been carried out to test the hypothesis that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism might be associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, the results are poorly consistent, partly due to genetic or other sources of heterogeneity. To investigate the association between this polymorphism and the risk of esophageal cancer, a meta-analysis was performed.
We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of association. The frequency of the putative risk allele in the controls was estimated by the inverse-variance method. Cochran’s Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2) were used to check heterogeneity. Egger’s test and an inverted funnel plot were used to assess the publication bias.
Our study included eight published case-control studies about the NQO1 C609T polymorphism and esophageal cancer, including a total of 1,217 esophageal cancer patients and 1,560 controls. Overall, a significant association was found between the NQO1 C609T variant and esophageal cancer under a recessive model (OR = 1.647; 95% CI = 1.233-2.200). Regarding histological type, more significant evidence was found for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.29-3.19) than esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.01-2.56) under a recessive model.
The meta-analysis suggests that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism considerably increases the risk of esophageal cancer.
MMP1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to elucidate genetic determinants of inflammatory marker levels, including circulating MMP1, in Taiwanese, and their association with obesity.
Five genetic polymorphisms around matrix metalloproteinase genes on chromosome 11q21-22 region were genotyped in 519 subjects.
After adjusting for clinical covariates, two polymorphisms were significantly associated with MMP1 levels, rs1799750 and rs495366, using an additive inheritance model (P = 1.5x10-4 and P = 2.57x10-5, respectively). Using dominant model, minor alleles of rs1799750 and rs495366 were associated with higher MMP1 levels (P = 1.3x10-4 and P = 1.95x10-5, respectively). In haplotype analysis, two haplotypes inferred from five SNPs (A2GATA and A1GATG) were associated with MMP1 levels (P = 5x10-4 and P = 8.47x10-5, respectively). Subgroup and interaction analysis revealed an association of rs1799750 and rs495366 with MMP1 levels only in non-obese subjects (P = 6.66x10-6 and P = 4.38x10-5, respectively, and interaction P = 0.008 for rs1799750). Haplotype interaction analysis also showed significant interaction for haplotype A1GATG (interaction P = 0.003).
Genotypes/haplotypes around MMP1 locus are associated with MMP1 levels in Taiwanese. Further, since genotypes/haplotypes near MMP1 locus interact with obesity to set MMP1 levels, genetic determinants for MMP1 level may be different between obese and non-obese individuals.
Matrix metalloproteinase 1; Genetic association study; Polymorphism; Haplotype; Interaction
Large-scale analysis of the transmission, mutation characteristics and the relationship between the reading frame and phenotype of the DMD gene has previously been performed in several countries, however, analogous studies have yet to be performed in Chinese populations.
Clinical data from 1053 Chinese patients with DMD/BMD were collected, and the DMD gene was tested by MLPA in all patients and 400 proband mothers. In 20 patients with negative MLPA, sequencing was also performed.
We found that 27.50% of cases had a family medical history of DMD/BMD, and large rearrangements were identified in 70.56% of the probands, of which 59.35% and 11.21% were deletions or duplications, respectively. The carrier status of the mothers in the study was determined to be 50.75%, and it was established that the DMD mutation was inherited from the mother in 51.72% of the probands. Exons 45–54 and 3–22 were the most frequently deleted regions, and exons 3–11 and 21–37 were the most prevalently duplicated regions of the gene. Breakpoints mainly occurred in introns 43–55 for deletion mutations and in introns 2 and 7 for duplication mutations. No breakpoints were found at the 5′ or 3′ end of introns 31, 35, 36, 40, 65, 68, and 74–78 in any of the deletion or duplication mutations. The reading frame rule held true for 86.4% of the DMD patients and 74.55% of the BMD patients.
It is essential to increase physicians’ understanding of DMD/BMD, to promote scientific information, and to increase awareness in regards to genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in pedigrees with a family history of the disease, particularly in families with small DMD lesions in China. In addition, such a large-scale analysis will prove to be instructive for leading translational studies between basic science and clinical medicine.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Becker muscular dystrophy; DMD gene; MLPA
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder (prevalence 1:125,000) characterised by broad thumbs and halluces, facial dysmorphism, psychomotor development delay, skeletal defects, abnormalities in the posterior fossa and short stature. The known genetic causes are point mutations or deletions of the cAMP-response element binding protein-BP (CREBBP) (50-60% of the cases) and of the homologous gene E1A-binding protein (EP300) (5%).
We describe, for the first time in literature, a RTS Caucasian girl, 14-year-old, with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, pituitary hypoplasia, Arnold Chiari malformation type 1, double syringomyelic cavity and a novel CREBBP mutation (c.3546insCC).
We hypothesize that CREBBP mutation we have identified in this patient could be responsible also for RTS atypical features as GH deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; GH deficiency; Arnold Chiari malformation; Syrinx; Pituitary hypoplasia
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is highly associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular morbidity. Epidemiological and genetic studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in DM2 management by unravelling novel mechanisms of diabetes complications, which is essential for future intervention trials. We have thus initiated the DIAbetes COhoRtE study (DIACORE).
DIACORE is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 6000 patients of self-reported Caucasian ethnicity with prevalent DM2 for at least 10 years of follow-up. Study visits are performed in University-based recruiting clinics in Germany using standard operating procedures. All prevalent DM2 patients in outpatient clinics surrounding the recruiting centers are invited to participate. At baseline and at each 2-year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized online questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident micro- and macrovascular DM2 complications, malignancy and hospitalization, with a primary focus on renal events. Confirmatory outcome information is requested from patient records. Blood samples are obtained for a centrally analyzed standard laboratory panel and for biobanking of aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA for future scientific use. A subset of the cohort is subjected to extended phenotyping, e.g. sleep apnea screening, skin autofluorescence measurement, non-mydriatic retinal photography and non-invasive determination of arterial stiffness.
DIACORE will enable the prospective evaluation of factors involved in DM2 complication pathogenesis using high-throughput technologies in biosamples and genetic epidemiological studies.
Diabetes mellitus type 2; Diabetic nephropathy; Chronic kidney disease; End stage renal disease; Cardiovascular morbidity; diabetes complications; Epidemiology; Genetics
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level) and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level), is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate.
Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency) and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD) were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs).
The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350) and CUD (1:30 000) detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate.
Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible.
Newborn screening; Founder mutation; Second-tier molecular test; Citrin deficiency; Carnitine uptake defect
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary heart disease (CHD), preceding the onset of cardiovascular disease by decades in most cases. Here we examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) integrated on Metabochip and coronary artery calcification (CAC), a valid risk factor for CHD, in an unselected, population-based German cohort.
The Metabochip is a custom iSELECT array containing >195,000 SNPs that was designed to support large-scale follow-up of putative associations for metabolic and cardiovascular-associated traits. We used generalized linear regression models to explore the impact of Metabochip SNPs on quantitative CAC in 4,329 participants.
The 9p21 variant, rs1537373, was most strongly associated (Beta = 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.21-0.39; p = 4.05x10-11) with quantitative CAC. The second strongest association with CAC was with rs9349379 in the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene, PHACTR1, (Beta = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.22-0.40; p = 4.67x10-11). Both SNPs remained nominally significant in dichotomized analyses for the presence of any CAC (odds ratiors1537373 (OR) = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.07-1.31; p = 0.001 and ORrs9349379 = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.14-1.40); p = 1.5x10-5). Fine mapping of the 9p21 and PHACTR1 gene region revealed several other SNPs that were strongly associated with CAC.
We demonstrate that SNPs near 9p21 and in PHACTR1 that have previously been shown to be associated with CHD are strongly associated with CAC in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study cohort. Our findings suggest that the 9p21 and 6q24 loci might be involved in cardiac outcome via promoting development of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries.
Coronary heart disease; Coronary artery calcification; Cohort study; Polymorphism; Metabochip
Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) and previous positional linkage studies have identified more than 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity, mostly in Europeans. We aimed to assess the contribution of some of these SNPs to obesity risk and to the variation of related metabolic traits, in Mexican children.
The association of six European obesity-related SNPs in or near FTO, NPC1, ENPP1, NEGR1, GNPDA2 and MC4R genes with risk of obesity was tested in 1,463 school-aged Mexican children (Ncases = 514; Ncontrols = 949). We also assessed effects of these SNPs on the variation of body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin levels, fasting plasma glucose levels, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, in a subset of 1,171 nonobese Mexican children.
We found a significant effect of GNPDA2 rs10938397 on risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30; P = 1.34 × 10-3). Furthermore, we found nominal associations between obesity risk or BMI variation and the following SNPs: ENPP1 rs7754561, MC4R rs17782313 and NEGR1 rs2815752. Importantly, the at-risk alleles of both MC4R rs17782313 and NPC1 rs1805081 showed significant effect on increased fasting glucose levels (β = 0.36 mmol/L; P = 1.47 × 10-3) and decreased fasting serum insulin levels (β = −0.10 μU/mL; P = 1.21 × 10-3), respectively.
Our present results suggest that some obesity-associated SNPs previously reported in Europeans also associate with risk of obesity, or metabolic quantitative traits, in Mexican children. Importantly, we found new associations between MC4R and fasting glucose levels, and between NPC1 and fasting insulin levels.
Obesity; Mexican children; Single nucleotide polymorphism
The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) is encoded by the MTTP gene that is regulated by cholesterol in humans. Previous studies investigating the effect of MTTP on ischemic heart disease have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, we have tested the hypothesis that the rare allele of the -164T > C polymorphism in MTTP alters the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), depending on the cholesterol levels.
The -164T > C polymorphism was genotyped in a case-cohort study (193 incident myocardial infarction (MI) and 131 incident ischemic stroke (IS) cases and 1 978 non-cases) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Potsdam study, comprising 27 548 middle-aged subjects. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (30 CVD cases and 1 188 controls) was used to replicate our findings.
Genotype frequencies were not different between CVD and CVD free subjects (P = 0.79). We observed an interaction between the -164T > C polymorphism and total cholesterol levels in relation to future CVD. Corresponding stratified analyses showed a significant increased risk of CVD (HRadditve = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.78) for individuals with cholesterol levels <200 mg/dL in the EPIC-Potsdam study. HRadditive was 1.06, 95% CI: 0.33 to 3.40 for individuals in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. A borderline significant decrease in CVD risk was observed in subjects with cholesterol levels ≥200 mg/dL (HRadditve = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.03) in the EPIC-Potsdam study. A similar trend was observed in the independent cohort (HRadditve = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.25).
Our study suggests an interaction between MTTP -164T > C functional polymorphism with total cholesterol levels. Thereby risk allele carriers with low cholesterol levels may be predisposed to an increased risk of developing CVD, which seems to be abolished among risk allele carriers with high cholesterol levels.
Epidemiology; Genetics; Myocardial infarction; Ischemic stroke; Cholesterol; Additive interaction
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common form of inherited intellectual disability caused by an expansion of CGG repeats located in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the FMR1 gene, which leads to hypermethylation and silencing of this locus. Although a dramatic increase in DNA methylation of the FMR1 full mutation allele is well documented, the extent to which these changes affect DNA methylation throughout the rest of the genome has gone unexplored.
Here we examined genome-wide methylation in both peripheral blood (N = 62) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs; N = 10) from FXS individuals and controls.
We not only found the expected significant DNA methylation differences in the FMR1 promoter and 5′ UTR, we also saw that these changes inverse in the FMR1 gene body. Importantly, we found no other differentially methylated loci throughout the remainder of the genome, indicating the aberrant methylation of FMR1 in FXS is locus-specific.
This study provides a comprehensive methylation profile of FXS and helps refine our understanding of the mechanisms behind FMR1 silencing.
Epigenetics; DNA methylation; Fragile X syndrome
The human paraoxonase (PON) gene family has three isoforms: PON1, PON2 and PON3. These genes are implicated as potential risk factors of cerebrovascular disease and can prevent oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the association between the genetic variants of all three PON genes and the risks of total stroke, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in the Han Chinese population.
A total of 1016 subjects were recruited, including 508 healthy controls and 498 patients (328 with ischemic stroke and 170 with hemorrhagic stroke). A total of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the PON genes were genotyped for statistical analysis. Two of the 11 SNPs (rs662 and rs854560) were contextualized in a meta-analysis of ischemic stroke.
The presence of rs705381 (−162) in the promoter region of PON1 was significantly associated with total stroke (Padjusted = 0.0007, OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.41-0.79]) and ischemic stroke (Padjusted = 0.0017, OR = 0.54 [95% CI = 0.37-0.79]) when analyzed using a dominant model, but was not associated with hemorrhagic stroke. There was also a nominal association between rs854571 (−824) and total stroke. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant nominal association between rs662 and ischemic stroke, but there was no evidence of an association between rs662 and ischemic stroke risk in a single site association study.
These findings indicate that polymorphisms of PON1 gene may be a risk factor of stroke.
Polymorphisms; Paraoxanase gene; Hemorrhagic stroke; Ischemic stroke; Association
Atherosclerosis shares common pathogenic features with myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke. BRCA-1 associated protein (BRAP), a newly identified risk gene for MI, aggravates the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to test the association between the BRAP gene and stroke in a Taiwanese population.
A total of 1,074 stroke patients and 1,936 controls were genotyped for the functional SNP rs11066001. In our previous studies, the rare allele of this SNP has been repeatedly shown to exert a recessive effect. Therefore, in the current study, we tested for the same recessive model. First, the genotype distributions between all the controls and all the stroke cases were compared. Then to reduce heterogeneity, we explored several population subsets by selecting young stroke subjects (using 45 years of age as the cutoff point), age- and sex-comparable controls, plaque-free controls, and stroke subtypes.
We did not find any significant association for the entire data set (OR = 0.94, p = 0.74) or for the subset analyses using age- and sex-comparable controls (p = 0.70) and plaque-free controls (p = 0.91). Analyses of the four stroke subtypes also failed to show any significant associations (p = 0.42 – 0.98). For both young and old subjects, the GG genotype of rs11066001 was similar in the stroke cases and unmatched controls (8.1% vs. 9.4% in young subjects and 8.0% vs. 7.8% in old subjects). Comparing stroke cases with plaque-free controls also failed to find any significant association.
The BRAP polymorphism may not play an important role in ischemic stroke in the studied population.
BRAP; Polymorphism; Cerebral infarction; Myocardial infarction; Young stroke
To evaluate the promoter methylation status of MUC2 gene and mRNA expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
We analyzed MUC2 methylation by MSP, and MUC2 mRNA by real-time PCR in 74 HCC.
MUC2 mRNA were lower in HCC tissues (Mean -ΔCt = −4.70) than that in Non-HCC tissues (Mean -ΔCt = −2.98). Expression of MUC2 was elevated in only 23 (31.08%) of the 74 HCC patients. MUC2 promoter was hypermethylated in 62.2% (46/74) of HCCs, and in only 18.9% (14/74) of non-tumor samples. MUC2 mRNA were lower in HCC patients with hypermethylation (Mean -ΔΔCt = −2.25) than those with demethylation (Mean -ΔΔCt = −0.22), and there is a decreased tendency for MUC2 mRNA in HCC patients with promoter hypermethylation (p = 0.011). There was a significantly correlation found between MUC2 mRNA and HBV and AFP in HCC. The loss of MUC2 mRNA and hypermethylation could be poor prognostic factors. After treated by 5-Aza-CdR and TSA, we found that MUC2 mRNA induced significantly in 7721, Huh7 and HepG2 cells.
The results suggested that MUC2 mRNA silenced by promoter hypermethylation is associated with high levels HBV in HCC.
MUC2; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Methylation
Low levels of serum adiponectin have been linked to central obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Variants in ADIPOQ, the gene encoding adiponectin, have been shown to influence serum adiponectin concentration, and along with variants in the adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) have been implicated in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the association of common variants in ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 with serum adiponectin and insulin resistance syndromes in a large cohort of European-Australian individuals.
Sixty-four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were genotyped in two general population cohorts consisting of 2,355 subjects, and one cohort of 967 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The association of tagSNPs with outcomes were evaluated using linear or logistic modelling. Meta-analysis of the three cohorts was performed by random-effects modelling.
Meta-analysis revealed nine genotyped tagSNPs in ADIPOQ significantly associated with serum adiponectin across all cohorts after adjustment for age, gender and BMI, including rs10937273, rs12637534, rs1648707, rs16861209, rs822395, rs17366568, rs3774261, rs6444175 and rs17373414. The results of haplotype-based analyses were also consistent. Overall, the variants in the ADIPOQ gene explained <5% of the variance in serum adiponectin concentration. None of the ADIPOR1/R2 tagSNPs were associated with serum adiponectin. There was no association between any of the genetic variants and insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome. A multi-SNP genotypic risk score for ADIPOQ alleles revealed an association with 3 independent SNPs, rs12637534, rs16861209, rs17366568 and type 2 diabetes after adjusting for adiponectin levels (OR=0.86, 95% CI=(0.75, 0.99), P=0.0134).
Genetic variation in ADIPOQ, but not its receptors, was associated with altered serum adiponectin. However, genetic variation in ADIPOQ and its receptors does not appear to contribute to the risk of insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome but did for type 2 diabetes in a European-Australian population.
Adiponectin; ADIPOQ; ADIPOR; Type 2 diabetes; Insulin resistance and Metabolic syndrome
A partial duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 5 (5q35-- > qter) is known to be associated with a distinct phenotype referred to as Hunter-McAlpine syndrome. Clinical spectrum of this disorder mainly consists of mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphism featuring flat facies, micrognathia, large, low-set dysplastic ears, hypertelorism, almond-shaped, down-slanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, small nose, long philtrum, small mouth, and thin upper lip. Less frequent remarkable findings include craniosynostosis, heart defect, hypoplastic phalanges, preaxial polydactyly, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernia. In most patients with a partial duplication of 5q the aberration occurred due to an inherited unbalanced translocation, therefore the phenotype was not reflective of pure trisomy 5q.
We report on a 9.5-year-old boy with some feature of Hunter-McAlpine syndrome including short stature, complex heart defect (dextrocardia, dextroversion, PFO), bilateral cryptorchidism, hypothyroidism, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Additionally, bilateral radial agenesis with complete absence of Ist digital rays, ulnar hypoplasia with bowing, choroidal and retinal coloboma, abnormal biliary vesicle were identified, which have never been noted in 5q trisomy patients. Karyotype analysis, sequencing and MLPA for TBX5 and SALL4 genes were unremarkable. Array comparative genomic hybridization detected a duplication on 5q35.2-5q35.3, resulting from a de novo chromosomal rearrangement. Our proband carried the smallest of all previously reported pure distal 5q trisomies encompassing terminal 5.4-5.6 Mb and presented with the most severe limb malformation attributed to the increased number of distal 5q copies.
We postulate that a terminal distal trisomy of 5q35.2-5q35.3, which maps 1.1 Mb telomeric to the MSX2 gene is causative for both radial agenesis and complex heart defect in our proband. A potential candidate gene causative for limb malformation in our proband could be FGFR4, which maps relatively in the closest position to the chromosomal breakage site (about 1.3 Mb) from all known 5q duplications. Since the limb malformation as well as the underlying genetic defect are distinct from other 5q trisomy patient we propose that a position effect resulting in altered long-range regulation of the FGFR4 (alternatively MSX2) may be responsible for the limb malformation in our proband.
Pure distal trisomy 5q; Distal 5q duplication; Dup (5)(q35.2q35.3); Hunter-McAlpine syndrome; MSX2; FGFR4; Radial agenesis; Absent thumbs
The 9p21.3 locus is strongly associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association of 9p21.3 variants with severity of CAD (defined by the number of vessel diseased [VD]) in the presence and absence of T2D.
We tested 11 9p21.3-variants for association in a white Italian study (N = 2,908), and carried out replication in 2 independent white populations, a German study (N = 2,028) and a Canadian Study (N=950). SNP association and permutation analyses were conducted.
We identified two 9p21.3-variants, rs4977574 (P < 4×10-4) and rs2383207 (P < 1.5×10-3) that were associated with severity of CAD in subjects without T2D. Association of rs4977574 with severity of CAD was confirmed in the Canadian Study. Results from subgroup analysis among patients with T2D showed an interaction between rs10738610 and T2D with P = 4.82×10-2. Further investigation showed that rs10738610 (P < 1.99×10-2) was found to be significantly associated with severity of CAD in subjects with T2D.
The 9p21.3 locus is significantly associated with severity of CAD. The number of associations of 9p21.3 variants with severity of CAD is variable to the presence and absence of T2D. In a CAD-susceptible region of 115 kb, there is only one variant associated with the severity of coronary vessel disease in the presence of type 2 diabetes.
Severity of CAD; Coronary artery disease; Diabetes mellitus; T2D; 9p21.3; Genetics; Single nucleotide polymorphism
Proper expression and functioning of transcription factors (TFs) are essential for regulation of different traits and thus could be crucial for the development of complex diseases. Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) have a higher incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) while solid tumors, like breast cancer (BC) and oral cancer (OC), show rare incidences. Triplication of the human chromosome 21 in DS is associated with altered genetic dosage of different TFs. V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) and Single Minded 2 (SIM2) are two such TFs that regulate several downstream genes involved in developmental and neurological pathways. Here we studied functional genetic polymorphisms (fSNP) in ETS2 and SIM2 encoding genes in a group of patients and control subjects to better understand association of these variants with DS phenotypes.
We employed an in silico approach to identify potential target pathways of ETS2 and SIM2. fSNPs in genes encoding for these two TFs were identified using available databases. Selected sites were genotyped in individuals with DS, their parents, ALL, BC, OC as well as ethnically matched control individuals. We further analyzed these data by population-based statistical methods.
Allelic/genotypic association analysis showed significant (P < 0.03) differences of rs2070530, rs1051476, rs11254, rs711 for DS subjects compared to control. rs711 also exhibited significantly different genotypic distribution pattern in parents of DS probands (P < 0.02) and BC patients (P < 0.02). Interaction analysis revealed independent main effect of rs711 in all the groups, while rs11254 exhibited independent main effect in DS subjects only. High entropy values were noticed for rs461155 in the solid tumor groups. Significant interactive effects of rs2070531 with rs1051475, rs1051476, rs11254 were observed in all the groups except DS.
We infer from the present investigation that the difference in frequencies of fSNPs and their independent as well as interactive effects may be the cause for altered expression of SIM2 and ETS2 in DS and malignant groups, which affects different downstream biological pathways. Thus, altered expression of SIM2 and ETS2 could be one of the reasons for variable occurrence of different malignant conditions in DS.
SIM2; ETS2; Down syndrome; Breast cancer; Oral cancer; Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) are at increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life, a risk which is magnified if followed by accelerated postnatal growth. We investigated whether common gene variants associated with adult obesity were associated with increased postnatal growth, as measured by BMI z-score, in children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative.
A total of 37 candidate SNPs were genotyped on 547 European children (228 SGA and 319 AGA). Repeated measures of BMI (z-score) were used for assessing obesity status, and results were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate.
SGA children had a lower BMI z-score than non-SGA children at assessment age 3.5, 7 and 11 years. We confirmed 27 variants within 14 obesity risk genes to be individually associated with increasing early childhood BMI, predominantly in those born AGA.
Genetic risk variants are less important in influencing early childhood BMI in those born SGA than in those born AGA, suggesting that non-genetic or environmental factors may be more important in influencing childhood BMI in those born SGA.
BMI; Childhood obesity; AGA children; SGA children
The proximal chromosome 15q is prone to unequal crossover, leading to rearrangements. Although 15q11q13 duplications are common in patients with developmental delays and mental impairment, 15q aneusomies resulting in greater or equal to 4 copies of 15q11q13 are rare and no pentasomy 15q11q13 has been reported in the literature. Thus far, all reported high copy number 15q11q13 cases are from the West populations and no such study in Chinese patients have been documented. Dosage-response pattern of high copy number 15q11q13 on clinical presentations is still a subject for further study.
In this study, we characterized two Han Chinese patients with high copy number 15q11q13. Using chromosome banding, high resolution SNP-based cytogenomic array, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, and PCR-based microsatellite analysis, we identified two patients with tetrasomy 15q11q13 and pentasomy 15q11q13. Both 15q11q13 aneusomies resulted from a maternally inherited supernumerary marker chromosome 15, and each was composed of two different sized 15q11q13 segments covering the Prader-Willi/Angelman critical region: one being about 10 Mb with breakpoints at BP1 and BP5 regions on 15q11 and 15q13, respectively, and another about 8 Mb in size with breakpoints at BP1 and BP4 regions on 15q. Both patients presented with similar clinical features that included neurodevelopmental delays, mental impairment, speech and autistic behavior, and mild dysmorphism. The patient with pentasomy 15q11q13 was more severely affected than the patient with tetrasomy 15q11q13. Low birth weight was noted in patient with pentasomy 15q1q13.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of pentasomy 15q11q13 and the first study of high copy number 15q11q13 in Han Chinese patients. Our findings demonstrate that patients with tetrasomy and pentasomy of chromosome 15q11q13 share similar spectrum of phenotypes reported in other high copy number 15q11q13 patients in the West, and positive correlation between 15q11q13 copy number and degree of severity of clinical phenotypes. Low birth weight observed in the pentasomy 15q11q13 patient was not reported in other patients with high copy number 15q11q13. Additional studies would be necessary to further characterize high copy number 15q11q13 aneusomies.
Chromosome 15; Cytogenomic array; Copy number; Pentasomy; Tetrasomy
Associations between transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been evaluated extensively in multiple ethnic groups. TCF7L2 has emerged as the strongest T2DM susceptibility gene in Europeans, but the findings have been inconsistent in the Chinese population. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the associations between TCF7L2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and T2DM risk in the Chinese population.
We performed searches in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Chinese databases (CNKI, CQVIP and Wanfang databases) for literature published from January 2007 to February 2012. We reviewed all relevant articles on TCF7L2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to T2DM in the Chinese population written in English and Chinese. Two reviewers extracted data independently using a standardized protocol, and any discrepancies were adjudicated by a third reviewer. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool the odds ratios (ORs). Publication bias and heterogeneity were examined.
A total of 21 articles were confirmed to be eligible for and included in this meta-analysis: 7 (with 3942 cases and 3502 controls) concerning rs11196218 (IVS−/+4G>A), 8 (with 3377 cases and 2975 controls) concerning rs290487 (IVS3−/+C>T), and 14 (with 7902 cases and 7436 controls) concerning rs7903146 (IVS3−/+C>T). Overall, the results showed a significant association between rs7903146 and T2DM risk. The pooled ORs were 1.54 for the comparison of T and C alleles (95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.37–1.74, p = 1.47 × 10-12, I2 = 25.20%) and 1.56 for TC heterozygotes and CC homozygotes (95% CI : 1.38–1.76, p = 8.25 × 10-9, I2 = 21.00%). The rs11196218(IVS4G>A) and rs290487 (IVS3C>T) SNPs were not associated with T2DM risk.
The rs7903146 SNP of the TCF7L2 gene is associated with increased susceptibility to T2DM in the Chinese population as a whole as well as northern Chinese and southern Chinese as subgroups.
Type 2 diabetes; T2DM; TCF7L2; SNPs; Meta-analysis
Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome (PLS) is a type IV genodermatosis caused by mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC), with a worldwide prevalence of 1–4 cases per million in the general population. In México, the prevalence of this syndrome is unknown, and there are few case reports. The diagnosis of twenty patients in the state of Sinaloa highlights the need to characterize this syndrome in Mexicans.
To understand the basis of PLS in Mexicans, the gene expression, enzymatic activity and mutational analysis of CTSC were assayed in nine PLS patients and their relatives. Frequencies of CTSC gene polymorphisms and HLA alleles were determined in these patients, their relatives, and the population.
Patients showed normal CTSC gene expression, but a deep reduction (up to 85%) in enzymatic activity in comparison to unrelated healthy individuals. A novel loss-of-function mutation, c.203 T >; G (p.Leu68Arg), was found in all patients, and some carried the polymorphism c.458C >; T (p.Thr153Ile). Allelic frequencies in patients, relatives and controls were 88.89%, 38.24% and 0.25% for G (c.203 T >; G); and 11.11%, 8.82% and 9.00% for T (c.458C >; T). HLA-DRB1*11 was found significantly more frequent (P = 0.0071) in patients than controls (33.33% vs. 7.32%), with an estimated relative risk of 6.33.
The novel loss-of function mutation of CTSC gene (c.203 T >; G) found in patients correlated with their diminished enzymatic activity, and HLA-DRB1*11 was found to be associated with PLS. The study of more PLS patients may give more insights into the etiology of the disease as well as its prevalence in México.
Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome; Cathepsin C; Mutations; Enzymatic activity; HLA; Mexicans