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1.  Bioavailability study of calcium sandoz-250 by atomic absorption spectroscopy in albino rats 
Ayu  2014;35(4):438-441.
Calcium sandoz-250 is an Ayurvedic calcium supplement, containing Khatika Churna. Bioavailability study of the formulation is essential for estimation of peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax and rate of absorption.
To evaluate the absorption parameters of calcium sandoz-250 in albino rats by atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) method.
Materials and Methods:
Study was carried out as a single dose, open-label, randomized study. Estimation of calcium was carried out by AAS, after validating the method for a few parameters for the estimation. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, time to peak concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration - time curve were calculated for calcium on administration of calcium sandoz-250.
Linearity curve was plotted for 0.5-2.5 ppm, given R2 value 0.9975. The Cmax, i.e. Cmax after administration of calcium sandoz-250 was 0.793 mg/ml at 90 min (Tmax). Measurable calcium-blood levels were noticed in all subjects up to 3.0 h after administration of calcium sandoz-250.
Calcium sandoz-250, consisting of Khatika Churna, increases the blood calcium level in albino rats.
PMCID: PMC4492031  PMID: 26195909
Ayurvedic formulation; bioavailability study; calcium sandoz-250
2.  Depleting medicinal plant resources: A threat for survival of Ayurveda 
Ayu  2014;35(4):349-350.
PMCID: PMC4492015  PMID: 26195893
3.  Exploring insights towards definition and laws of health in Ayurveda: Global health perspective 
Ayu  2014;35(4):351-355.
The current healthcare system is focused on disease management. Our current approach to treatment begins only after the diagnosis, and then attempts to treat the symptoms and prevent the progression. Despite increased global healthcare spending, there has been an increasing incidence, and severity of diseases pointing to impaired health of the populace. This progressive deterioration in general health has created an unsustainable increase in healthcare costs that has hampered the economy. Much of the rising costs in healthcare are secondary to treating the progression of preventable diseases and focus on creating new treatments. There has been an ongoing discussion of incorporating a “defense” or prevention as part of our health system. However, there are few established guidelines beyond tactical use of vaccination in known infectious diseases and screening for chronic diseases and cancers. Ayurveda has the core competency and strategy for prevention of disease. Sushruta has propounded the laws of health, which are unknown to the current healthcare system. This article describes these laws and strategic combination of Ayurveda (defense) and modern medicine (offense) to create a complete healthcare system. This system is called Symbiohealth and is potentially more effective, less expensive, less toxic and creates a healthier society.
PMCID: PMC4492016  PMID: 26195894
Allopathy; Ayurveda; disease; health; healthcare; prevention; Symbiohealth
4.  Concept of Sukha (comfort) mentioned in Dhatusarata (tissue excellence) w.s.r. to vocational guidance 
Ayu  2014;35(4):356-360.
Agni (digestive fire), Prakruti (constitution), Dhatusarata (tissue excellence), Dosha (bio–energies) are the specialties of Ayurveda on which diagnosis, treatment and research are based. The description of Dhatusarata (tissue excellence) has been given under Dashavidha Pariksha (tenfold examination) in Charak Samhita, Viman Sthana, 8th chapter. Some qualities, which are mentioned in Dhatusarata are difficult to assess, e.g. Sukha, Aishwarya, Upabhoga, Bala, etc., There is a need to develop some quantitative parameters to measure these qualities according to tissue excellence i.e. Dhatusarata. By assessing Dhatu Sarata, one can judge the true strength of a particular Dhatu but only the ability or strength is not enough to get success; the liking or interest is also essential to achieve success. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the concept of Dhatusarata and reveal different aspects of Sukha according to the quality of that particular Dhatu in context of vocational guidance. It will help to establish interrelationship between Dhatusarata and vocational guidance. It will be assessed whether this Sukha quality is merely happiness or having different shades according to the excellence of Dhatus and whether this study is useful in guiding the person to choose appropriate profession, which will be according to his liking and ability. It has been concluded that shades of Sukha quality varies with particular Dhatusaras, which may be helpful in guiding a suitable profession to an individual which will be according to his ability and liking i.e. Sukha for intimate success.
PMCID: PMC4492017  PMID: 26195895
Career guidance; Dhatusarata; happiness; Sukha; vocational guidance
5.  A critical appraisal on Swarnaprashana in children 
Ayu  2014;35(4):361-365.
Administration of processed gold in children is a unique practice mentioned in Ayurveda as “Swarnaprashana” by Acharya Kashyapa thousands of years back. He explained evidently the administration of Swarna (gold) in children for the benefits of improving intellect, digestion and metabolism, physical strength, immunity, complexion, fertility, and life span. There are various formulations of gold and even along with herbal drugs explained by different Acharya for prolonged usage in children. Swarnaprashana in children can be mainly implicated in two contexts of Ayurveda; Lehana (supplementary feeds) and Jatakarma Samskara (newborn care). This review is an effort to critically evaluate the available data, which may be helpful in clearing some of the existing fallacies on the topic. The age and method of administration, benefits and dosage as per various classical textbooks of Ayurveda are discussed here along with the reports of related scientific studies. This review proposes that the benefits of Swarnaprashana can be achieved at multiple levels like as a general health promoter and in specific to enhancement of intelligence, digestion, metabolism, immunity, physical strength, complexion, or fertility. Ayurveda recommends only purified and processed form of gold for internal administration. The age at which Swarnaprashana should be administered and its duration can be determined depending upon the desired effect in children as a positive health care program.
PMCID: PMC4492018  PMID: 26195896
Ayurveda; children; gold preparation; immuno-modulator; Swarnaprashana
6.  Contribution of Ayurveda in foundation of basic tenets of bioethics 
Ayu  2014;35(4):366-370.
Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as “principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics.
PMCID: PMC4492019  PMID: 26195897
Ayurveda; bioethics; Chatushpada; Sadvritta; Vaidyavritti; Yogya
7.  Medical geography in Charaka Samhita 
Ayu  2014;35(4):371-377.
Charaka Samhita is the oldest and the most authentic treatise on Ayurveda and is the ancient medical science of India. Apart from giving information on medical conditions and their treatment; it also gives valuable information on geographical, social, and economic conditions of India. This article is an attempt to explore geographical conditions of the ancient India, its geographical position in present India and its medical significance.
PMCID: PMC4492020  PMID: 26195898
Ayurveda; Charaka Samhita; Desha; geography; medical geography
8.  Management of Madhumeha Janya Upadrava with special reference to diabetic nephropathy - A clinical study 
Ayu  2014;35(4):378-383.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. As the disease DN manifests secondary to Madhumeha, the disease is termed as Madhumeha Janya Upadrava. The diagnosis of DN is microalbuminuria is a powerful screening tool in screening DN earlier stages. A diabetic can develop nondiabetic renal disease like anyone, but the finding of diabetic retinopathy strongly suggests that any proteinuria is due to diabetic glomerulosclerosis. In this dissertation, all diabetic patients who showed positive diabetic retinopathy changes; were screened for 24 h microalbuminuria, at its earlier asymptomatic period itself. This research work is specially intended to instigate effective therapies at earlier stage itself, thereby prevent further progression.
To evaluate the combined effect of Shilajitvadi Vataka, Punarnavadi Mandura, Triphala Guggulu and Pippalimooladi Paneeya added with Amrita and Bringaraja in DN.
Materials and Methods:
Single blind clinical study with pre-test and post-test was designed. The study conducted on 15 patients of both sex aged between 20 and 80 years, having DN changes through assays for microalbuminuria and other biochemical assays; along with prior confirmation of diabetic retinopathy changes. The duration of the study was 48 days and patients were assessed on every 15 days.
After 48 days of treatment, statistically significant improvement in levels of microalbuminuria with mean difference 83.76 μg/24 h, highly significant improvement in status of Agni and statistically no significant improvement in glomerular filtration rate by 2.381 mL/min/1.73m2. No significant side-effects were observed.
Overall the study showed encouraging results in treating the malady DN.
PMCID: PMC4492021  PMID: 26195899
Diabetic nephropathy; glomerular filtration rate; Madhumeha Janya Upadravas; microalbuminuria; retinopathy
9.  Comparative clinical efficacy of Ashtangavaleha and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha on Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) in children 
Ayu  2014;35(4):384-390.
Tamaka Shwasa is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lung airways resulting in episodic airflow obstruction. This disease is more predominant in children and aged population. Apart from being the leading cause of hospitalization for children, it is one of the most important chronic conditions causing elementary school absenteeism. The parallel disease entity in contemporary medical science to this disorder is Bronchial Asthma.
This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Ashtangavaleha and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha on Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma) in Children.
Materials and Methods:
The study was therapeutic interventional randomized clinical trial. Totally 100 patients suffering from Tamaka Shwasa were selected, and 74 patients completed the course of treatment. Patients were divided into two groups. Ashtangavaleha was administered in group AG and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha was administerd in group VG (5-15g in divided doses) for 8 weeks duration. Comaprative assesment of both the drugs was done on the signs and symptoms of the disease, pulmonary function test and quality of life parameters.
When the individualized overall effect of therapy was considered, more number of patients treated with Ashtangavaleha reached moderate improvement zone than the patients treated with Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha.
The trial showed a marginal better efficacy of Ashtangavaleha (66.66%) in comparison to Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha (63.15%) on the overall condition of the patients even though the superiority was statistically insignificant (>0.05).
PMCID: PMC4492022  PMID: 26195900
Ashtangavaleha; bronchial asthma; randomized clinical trial; Tamaka Shwasa; Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha
10.  Clinical assessment of dietary interventions and lifestyle modifications in Madhumeha (type- 2 Diabetes Mellitus) 
Ayu  2014;35(4):391-397.
India leads the world with maximum number of diabetes patients being termed as the “diabetes capital of the world.” Certain risk factors including unsatisfactory diet, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle are potentially reversible. Acharayas have widely described the role of diet and activities to control Madhumeha (type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]) along with medications. Habitual consumption of roasted or dry Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) flour, Mudga (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents the manifestation of Prameha.
To assess the clinical effects of dietary interventions and life style modifications in Madhumeha patients.
Materials and Methods:
Present study was carried out on 56 patients of Madhumeha from S.S. Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Dietary interventions and life style modifications schedule was prepared based on Ayurvedic principles and patients were advised to follow this regimen. Three consecutive follow-ups were done for 3 months at the interval of one month each.
Significant improvement was observed in clinical signs and symptoms along with plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Madhumeha patients after these interventions (P < 0.001).
Dietary interventions and life style modifications are two important tools by which adequate glycemic control can be obtained, especially in newly diagnosed T2DM patients and in patients who are on antidiabetic medication, but not properly controlled.
PMCID: PMC4492023  PMID: 26195901
Amalaki; blood sugar; HbA1c; Madhumeha; Mudga; type 2 diabetes mellitus; Yava
11.  Effect of Neem oil and Haridra on non-healing wounds 
Ayu  2014;35(4):398-403.
In Ayurveda, Vrana (wound) has stated as tissue destruction and discoloration of viable tissue due to various etiology. In Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta described Vrana as a main subject. Most commonly Vrana can be classified into Shuddha and Dushta Vrana (chronic wound/nonhealing ulcers). Among the various drugs mentioned for Dushta Vrana, two of them, Neem (Azadirechta indica A. Juss) oil and Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) powder are selected for their wide spectrum action on wound.
To compare the effect of Neem oil and Haridra in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds.
Materials and Methods:
Total 60 patients of wounds with more than 6 weeks duration were enrolled and alternatively allocated to Group I (topical application of Neem oil), Group II (Haridra powder capsules, 1 g 3 times orally) and Group III (both drugs). Duration of treatment was considered until complete healing of the wound, whereas 4th and 8th week were considered for assessment of 50% healing. Wound size was measured and recorded at weekly intervals. Wound biopsy was repeated after 4 weeks for assessment of angiogenesis and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis.
After 8 weeks of treatment, 50% wound healing was observed in 43.80% patients of Group I, 18.20% patients of Group II, and 70.00% patients of Group III. Microscopic angiogenesis grading system scores and DNA concentration showed highly significant effect of combined use of both drugs when compared before and after results of treatment (P < 0.001).
Topical use of Neem oil and oral use of Haridra powder capsule used in combination were found effective for chronic non-healing wounds.
PMCID: PMC4492024  PMID: 26195902
Chronic wound; Haridra; microscopic angiogenesis grading system score; Neem oil; wound healing
12.  A clinical study on the Naimittika Rasayana effect of Silajatu and Mamajjaka in type-2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Ayu  2014;35(4):404-410.
Recent years have shown an alarming rise in the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) all over the world. The present management of DM it not satisfactory. Hence, alternative systems of medicine are also being explored. Prameha as described in Ayurveda is a disease synonymous with today's DM. The patients of Prameha inherently carry the risk of impaired Agni and depleted Ojas status, that is, hypometabolic and immuno-compromised state. Now the primary goal is not merely to achieve normoglycemia, but also to minimize its complications. In this context, many Ayurvedic drugs are undergoing extensive research.
To evaluate the anti-diabetic, immune-enhancer and biofire balancing effects of Naimittika Rasayana drugs viz. Silajatu and Mamajjaka in type-2 DM.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 95 patients of type-2 DM were registered; in which 84 patients turned up for full follow-up. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups; Group-A was treated with Mamajjaka (500mg twice a day) and Group-B with Silajatu (500mg twice a day) and Group-C was treated with modern drug and assessment was done at monthly intervals for three months.
The selected Rasayana drugs have shown good response on subjective and objective parameters. The Mamajjaka treated patients responded better. However, as regards the reduction of post prandial blood sugar, Silajatu was superior.
The Ayurveda-inspired holistic approach seems to have a unique response promoting Agni (biofire) and Ojas (immune strength) status leading to good health and wellness.
PMCID: PMC4492025  PMID: 26195903
Agni; diabetes mellitus; Madhumeha; Mamajjaka; Ojas; Rasayana; Silajatu
13.  Effect of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda on Sandhigata Vata (osteoarthritis of knee joint) 
Ayu  2014;35(4):411-415.
Reported case was a 63-year-old female with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) (Sandhigata Vata) of the left knee joint accompanied by exostoses. Radiology (X-ray) report confirmed it as a Kellgren-Lawrence grade III or less with exostoses. At the beginning, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were poor, and function score was fair. Srilankan traditional and Ayurveda medicine treatment was given in three regimens for 70 days. After 70 days, external treatment of oleation and 2 capsules of Shallaki (Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch) and two tablets of Jeewya (comprised of Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Millers. and Terminalia chebula Retz.), twice daily were continued over 5 months. Visual analogue scale for pain, knee scores in the Knee Society online rating system and a Ayurveda clinical assessment criteria was used to evaluate the effects of treatments in weekly basis. After treatment for 70 days, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were also improved up to good level and function score was improved up to excellent level. During the follow-up period, joint symptoms and signs and the knee scores were unchanged. In conclusion, this OA patient's quality of life was improved by the combined treatment of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda.
PMCID: PMC4492026  PMID: 26195904
Exostoses; osteoarthritis; Sandhigata Vata
14.  Pharmacognostical and high performance thin layer chromatography studies on leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum L. 
Ayu  2014;35(4):416-422.
Clerodendrum infortunatum L. commonly known as Bhant plays a significant role in Indian System of Medicine, that is, Ayurveda, due to its medicinal properties. It grows easily in waste places of all areas of India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.
The present study was carried out with a view to lay down its pharmacognostic standards along with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) studies in order to document/validate its therapeutic benefits.
Materials and Methods:
In this research, leaves of C. infortunatum were subjected to pharmacognostic evaluation parameters such as macroscopy, quantitative microscopy, physicochemical studies, phytochemical screening. HPTLC has been developed for detection and quantification of gallic acid and tyrosine in C. infortunatum. Increasing serial dilutions of reference standard gallic acid (20–100 μg/mL) and tyrosine (20–100 μg/mL) were scanned at 254 nm and 280 nm, respectively.
Microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of anisocytic stomata, sclereids, glandular and covering trichome, and prisms of calcium oxalate crystal. The total ash, water-soluble, and acid insoluble ash values of leaves were 9.95%, 2.15%, and 0.70%, respectively. The maximum extractive value of crude powder was in the water. HPTLC studies revealed that the amount of gallic acid in the crude powder of test sample were high (0.244 mg/g) in comparison to tyrosine (0.081 mg/g).
The data generated would be of significant use for the authentication of drug and would also serve as a reference for the standardization and quality control of C. infortunatum.
PMCID: PMC4492027  PMID: 26195905
Bhant; Clerodendrum infortunatum L.; ethnomedicine; pharmacognostic evaluation; standardization
15.  Antioxidant potential and its relationship with polyphenol content and degree of polymerization in Opuntia elatior Mill. fruits 
Ayu  2014;35(4):423-427.
Opuntia elatior Mill. (Nagaphani) fruits are traditionally recommended as an expectorant, remedy for whooping cough, asthma, gonorrhea, ulcers, tumors, in the treatment of diarrhea and syphilis. Many of these diseases are allied with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Thus, current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin.
To evaluate antioxidant potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of the O. elatior fruits (HAOE) and its fractions.
Materials and Methods:
Using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, total polyphenolic, flavonoid (FA), flavanone (FO) contents and degree of polymerization in relation with its antioxidant activity were examined.
The experimental data indicated that the HAOE, ethyl acetate (EAOE) and butanol (BFOE) soluble fractions have shown significant antioxidant activity. The highest polyphenolic, FA, FO contents and degree of polymerization were found in EAOE. The scavenging potential was in the order of Ascorbic Acid > EAOE > BFOE > HAOE > BIOE, where ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. The increased antioxidant potential of EAOE and BFOE fractions over HAOE extract may be attributed to the purification achieved by fractionation of the extract which in turn resulted in an increase in the degree of polymerization and segregation of secondary metabolites.
The fruit of O. elatior can be used as the best alternative for synthetic antioxidants.
PMCID: PMC4492028  PMID: 26195906
Antioxidant activity; flavanone; flavonoid; Opuntia elatior; polymerization
16.  Standard manufacturing procedure of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja 
Ayu  2014;35(4):428-432.
Makaradhwaja is one of the most potent herbomineral medicines of Ayurveda. Different references for the preparation of Makaradhwaja were reported in classics. According to the proportion of sulfur (Gandhaka), three references were mentioned in classics that is, Dwiguna (2:1 = S: Hg), Triguna (3:1 = S: Hg) and Shadguna (6:1 = S: Hg). Makaradhwaja is prepared by Kupipakwa system of heating. In the preparation of Kupipakwa medicine as the ratio of sulfur to mercury increases it becomes difficult to prepare medicine.
To standardize manufacturing procedure of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja (SBM).
Materials and Methods:
Total four batches of SBM were prepared by using electrical muffle furnace (EMF). All the involved procedures were followed as per classical guidelines.
Average 13.68% yield of SBM was observed.
SBM requires intermittent heating pattern, that is, mild heat (100-125° C) for 2.5 hrs, moderate heat (250-450° C) for 4.5 hrs and strong heat (450-600° C) for 5 hrs for 290.5 g Kajjali.
PMCID: PMC4492029  PMID: 26195907
Kupipakwa Rasayana; mercury sulfide; Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja
17.  Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-ulcerogenic study of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) 
Ayu  2014;35(4):433-437.
Disorders like hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently now days because of a faulty lifestyle. Starches (Satwa) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely, Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used in folklore practice, as Tugaksheeree, for the treatment of the above-mentioned complaints.
To assess the acute toxicity potential of the C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea along with their assessment for adaptogenic activity, by noting their effect on forced swimming-induced hypothermia and gastric ulceration in rats.
Materials and Methods:
For acute toxicity study, the effect of test drugs C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea rhizome starch were studied after a single administration of up to three dose levels, with 4400 mg/kg as the maximum dose. The animals were observed for 72 hours periodically and mortality was recorded up to seven days. The adaptogenic and anti-ulcer activities were assessed by determining and comparing the changes in rectal temperature, ponderal changes, ulcer index and histopathological parameters in the test drug group with that of stress control group.
Both the drugs did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality even up to the maximum dose level of 4400 mg/kg. Both the test drugs significantly reversed the stress-induced gastric ulceration in comparison to stress-control rats. Starch from rhizome of C. angustifolia reversed forced swimming-induced hypothermia apparently, but not to a significant extent. However, the reversal of hypothermia found statistically significant in the rhizome starch of the M. arundinacea treated group.
M. arundinacea had better anti-stress activity in comparision to C. angustifolia.
PMCID: PMC4492030  PMID: 26195908
Curcuma Angustifolia Roxb.; Gastric Ulcer; Maranta Arundinacea Linn.; Starch; Swimming; Tugaksheeree
18.  Dolichos biflorus Linn. ameliorates diabetic complications in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
Ayu  2014;35(4):442-446.
Horsegram (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) is a known antilithiatic, hypolipedemic and has free radical scavenging activity and increased production of reactive oxygen species play a role in pathophysiological mechanisms that trigger diabetic complications.
To see the effect of daily oral feeding of D.biflorous on nephropathy and retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ) induced-diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 24 healthy rats were randomly grouped into controls, diabetic and diabetic on Dolichos. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg) and animals were given prepared food and water ad libitum. Dolichos was orally given at 300 mg/kg/day to rats in diabetic on Dolichos group for next 30 days. Fasting blood glucose levels was monitored at beginning and at the end of the experiment while assessment of serum creatinine levels and histopathological study of kidney and retina was carried only at the end of the experiment. Statistical differences between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by, Bonferroni test as posthoc test.
Results indicated improvement in serum creatinine levels and reduced glomerular sclerosing and Bowman's space with interstitial alterations and significantly reduced renal hypertrophy in diabetic rat son Dolichos diabetic rats (P < 0.001). Retinal layers showed inconsistent improvement in the width of the neuronal layers and decreased vacuolization of plexiform layers and retinal vessel density.
D. biflorus at doses of 300 mg/kg/day for 30 days resulted in gradual but significant decreased diabetic nephropathy.
PMCID: PMC4492032  PMID: 26195910
Diabetic nephropathy; diabetic retinopathy; Dolichos biflorus; experimental diabetes
19.  Use of Curcuma longa L. extract to stain various tissue samples for histological studies 
Ayu  2014;35(4):447-451.
Curcuma longa L. is a perennial herb and a member of the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family, which is used extensively in foods as well as in Ayurvedic and Chinese systems of medicine. Current researches have focused on its antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial properties. Until now, very few studies suggested its role as a histological stain.
To ascertain its efficacy to be used as a counterstain after hematoxylin, to compare it's staining ability with that of routinely used eosin dye and also to ascertain its role in various collagen diseases.
Materials and Methods:
Turmeric rhizomes were cut into small pieces and were dried. These dried turmeric rhizomes were milled to form fine powder, which was then processed to form dye for staining tissue structures.
It revealed that turmeric can be used as a counterstain after hematoxylin, its staining ability was also good and comparable to that of eosin dye with a special affinity for collagen and muscle fibers.
Turmeric dye can be used as a histological stain, which stains similar to eosin dye and its specific affinity for collagen and muscle fibers authenticates its role in the treatment of collagen and muscle disorders.
PMCID: PMC4492033  PMID: 26195911
Counterstain; Curcuma longa; eosin; hematoxylin; turmeric; Zingiberaceae
20.  Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats 
Ayu  2014;35(4):452-457.
Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide.
To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03).
Materials and Methods:
The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models.
SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model.
Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect.
PMCID: PMC4492034  PMID: 26195912
Aegle marmelos; anti-hypertensive; polyherbal; two kidney one clip model
21.  Evaluation of analgesic activity of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight and Arn bark: A tribal claim 
Ayu  2014;35(4):458-461.
Plants occupy an important place in folk medicine all over the world for centuries and indigenous communities have developed their own specific knowledge on plant resources, uses, management, and conservation. Research interest and activities in the area of ethno medicine have increased tremendously in the last decade. Currently, scientists are evincing keen interest in the scientific evaluation of ethno medical claims. Bark powder of Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna [Roxb.] Wight and Arn) is used by tribals for the management of some painful conditions.
To evaluate analgesic activity of T. arjuna bark in rodents.
Materials and Methods:
For evaluation of analgesic activity, different experimental models, that is, the acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome in mice, formaldehyde-induced paw licking response and tail flick test in rats were designed. Experiments were carried out at two-dose levels, that is, therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and TED × 2. Animals were divided into three groups (six animals in each group), first group serving as a control group, second and third group labeled as test drug group.
Test drug at both the doses significantly decreased the writhing syndrome in comparison to control the group. In comparison to control the group, incidences of formalin-induced paw licking were reduced in test drug groups in both early and late phases of pain. In tail flick response, threshold was significantly increased in both test drug groups at every time intervals.
Study showed that stem bark of T. arjuna possesses analgesic activity in all experimental models.
PMCID: PMC4492035  PMID: 26195913
Arjuna bark; pain; reverse pharmacology
22.  Management of spastic cerebral palsy through multiple Ayurveda treatment modalities 
Ayu  2014;35(4):462-466.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a leading cause of childhood disability affecting function and development. The global incidence of CP is 2:1000. It has been reported that children with CP and their caretaker have impaired health-related quality of life (QOL). Of the many types and subtypes of CP, none has any known cure. For a detailed description of the disease CP, though, there is no one to one correlation in Ayurvedic classics; it can be taken as Vata Vyadhi as far as its etiology and symptomatology are concerned.
To assess the effect of certain Panchakarma procedures in the management of CP.
Materials and Methods:
Total 8 patients were registered and treated with 5 days of Udvartana, 5 days of Abhyanga followed by Sarvanga Swedana and then 8 days of Yoga Basti. The same course of treatment has been repeated for 3 times with an interval of 14 days. Ashtanga Ghrita was given during whole procedures as internal medication. Results of treatment were assessed with anthropometrical measurement, developmental milestone, Modified Ashworth Scale, spasm scale, reflex scale, and muscle power grading.
This Ayurvedic management shows good result in CP patients, especially by improving growth (height, weight, chest circumference) and development (head holding and sitting), reducing spasticity of left upper limb and muscle spasm.
Multisystem approach is needed to improve the condition of the patient. Panchakarma along with internal medication should be given to improve all the facets of spastic CP. Yoga Basti acts by their own mode of action and can be used freely for such disease conditions.
PMCID: PMC4492036  PMID: 26195914
Cerebral palsy; Panchakarma in pediatrics; Yoga Basti
23.  A preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Darvyadi Yoni Varti: A compound Ayurvedic formulation 
Ayu  2014;35(4):467-470.
Darvyadi Yoni Varti is an Ayurvedic formulation indicated for the management of Garbhasaya Grivamukhagata Vrana (cervical erosion). Though a number of drugs are available in modern medicine, interest towards Ayurveda is gaining. Drugs with Vranasodhana, Ropana and Prasadana properties like Sphatika, Darvi, Haridra, and Lodhra are useful in this situation and are selected to prepare Yoni Varti.
To standardize and evaluate preliminary pharmacognostical as well as physicochemical profiles of Darvyadi Yoni Varti.
Materials and Methods:
Raw material was analyzed in the Pharmacognostical Laboratory for genuinity before converting into Varti. Finished product was analyzed by following pharmacopoeial standards.
The pH value of Darvyadi Yoni Varti was 5.0, water soluble extract was 23.3%w/w, alcohol soluble extract was 8.7%w/w, ash value was 5.16%w/w, loss on drying was 71.73%w/w. High performance thin layer chromatography was carried out; in which maximum 10 spots at 254 nm and 3 spots at 366 nm were distinguished.
Pharmacognostical study of raw drug revealed the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of Darvyadi Yoni Varti.
PMCID: PMC4492037  PMID: 26195915
Cervical erosion; Darvyadi Yoni Varti; Garbhasaya Vrana
24.  Dhatrilauha: Right choice for iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy 
Ayu  2014;35(3):283-288.
Anemia in pregnancy is multi-factorial. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common one. Major cause is increased demand of iron during pregnancy. In Ayurveda, under Pandu-Roga the features of anemia are described. It is characterized by Vaivarnyata or Varnanasha (change/destruction in normal color of the body), a disorder of Pitta vitiation. Ayurvedic management is an effective way of curing anemia in general by a large number of Lauha preparations of which Dhatrilauha has been used widely for centuries.
To evaluate the effect of Dhatrilauha in the management of IDA based on the scientific parameters among pregnant patients.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 58 cases were selected by simple randomized sampling method as per inclusion criteria of pregnant women between 4th and 7th months of pregnancy with a clinical diagnosis and laboratory confirmation of IDA. Dhatrilauha 500 mg in two divided doses after food with normal potable water were given for 45 days with three follow-ups, each of 15 days intervals. Final assessment was done after completion of 45 days and results were statistically analyzed by using Cochran's Q-test and Student's t-test.
Dhatrilauha showed statistically significant (P < 0.01) improvement in the majority of sign-symptoms and objective parameters such as weakness, fatigue, palpitation, effort intolerance, breathlessness, heartburn, pallor, constipation, hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, RBC distribution width, mean platelet volume, serum iron, and total iron binding capacity.
Dhatrilauha possesses many fold effectiveness in anemia (IDA), which was evidenced with the significant results obtained in the majority of parameters in this study.
PMCID: PMC4427833  PMID: 25972720
Dhatrilauha; hemoglobin; iron deficiency anemia; Pandu Roga; pregnancy
25.  Multiple aneurism (Siraja Granthi) observed during cadaveric dissection 
Ayu  2014;35(3):300-302.
Acharya Sushruta has emphasized the method and importance of dissection to study anatomy practically. Perfect knowledge of anatomy is vital for practicing surgeons and hence training of dissecting the dead body was considered as mandatory for surgeons. Though dissection techniques may give the perception of the structure of organs, the pervading and subtle consciousness in the body can be experienced with the eyes of knowledge and penance only. Though standard anatomy is defined based on statistical inferences on comparing large number of subjects, individual variations and exceptional structural specialties tend to occur quite frequently. Proper recording and publication of such instances would strengthen the knowledge base of the science. During the routine cadaveric dissection in the anatomy lab, multiple aneurisms (Siraja Granthi) in the abdominal aorta and femoral artery of 55-year-old male cadaver were observed. Such pathological variations are uncommon but clinically significant. Rupture of aneurysms or clot formation inside the lumen can produce serious complications in living condition. Enhancing size of the aneurysm producing pressure effect on the nearby structures can be the other reason for the surgical intervention. A good number of these can remain asymptomatic for a considerable period. As the clinical consequences are wide varying, the disease is of interest to physicians, as well as surgeons.
PMCID: PMC4427834  PMID: 25972721
Anatomical anomalies; aneurysm; cadaveric dissection; Siraja Granthi

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