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1.  Associations of physical activity with depressiveness and coping in subjects with high-grade obesity aiming at bariatric surgery: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Reduced physical activity is supposed to be associated with depressiveness and more passive coping patterns. For further evaluation of this assumed relation we studied energy expenditure due to physical activity - usually referred to as activity thermogenesis (AT) - together with depressiveness (clinical diagnosis, depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire), and coping behaviours (Brief COPE Inventory) in 50 patients with high-grade obesity (42 ± 12 years; 9 with II° and 41 with III° obesity) aiming at bariatric surgery.
Methods
AT was assessed with a portable armband device (SenseWear™ armband). Depressiveness and coping were assessed using validated questionnaires.
Results
Weight-adjusted non-exercise AT and intensity of physical activity (metabolic equivalent) correlated inversely with body mass index (non-exercise AT: r = −0.32, P < 0.05; mean metabolic equivalent: r = −0.37, P < 0.01) but not with depressiveness. The coping strategies “support coping” and “active coping” showed significant inverse correlations to a) weight-adjusted non-exercise AT (“support coping”: r = −0.34, P < 0.05; “active coping”: r = −0.36, P < 0.05), b) weight-adjusted exercise-related AT (“support coping”: r = −0.36, P < 0.05; “active coping”: r = −0.38, P < 0.01) and c) intensity of physical activity (for mean metabolic equivalent: “support coping”: r = −0.38, P < 0.01; “active coping”: r = −0.40, P < 0.01; for duration of exercise-related AT: “support coping”: r = −0.36, P < 0.05; “active coping”: r = −0.38, P < 0.01).
Conclusions
AT was not associated with depressiveness. Furthermore, supposed adaptive coping strategies of individuals aiming at bariatric surgery were negatively associated with AT.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0042-4
PMCID: PMC4479107  PMID: 26110016
Bariatric surgery; Coping; Depression; Obesity; Physical activity
2.  Life events, emotional responsiveness, and the functional prognosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
Background
Stressors may differently affect human physiological systems according to the host properties relevant to psycho-behavioral processes that the stressors invoke. In a Japanese multicenter cohort study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we examined if major life events differently contribute to the patients’ functional prognosis according to their ability to identify emotions as manifest feelings when encountering the events (emotional responsiveness).
Methods
460 patients with RA completed a self-administered baseline questionnaire about psychosocial factors including emotional responsiveness. Two years later, they checked on a list of positive/negative personal events that happened during the two-year study period. Rheumatologists evaluated their functional status at baseline and follow-up using the ACR classification system.
Results
In a multiple logistic regression model that included baseline demographic, disease activity/severity-related, therapeutic, and socioeconomic factors as covariates, none of the counts of positive, negative, or all life events was associated with the functional status at follow-up. In the subgroup with poor emotional responsiveness, however, these life event counts were all associated with a poorer functional prognosis (odds ratio of ACR class 3–4 vs. 1–2 associated with one increment in the all life-event count = 2.39, 95 % confidence interval = 1.27-4.48, p = .007), while no such relationship was evident for the rest of the patients.
Conclusions
Major life events, whether positive or negative in nature, may have an impact on the disease course of patients with RA when the patient has poor emotional responsiveness to the event(s).
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0043-3
PMCID: PMC4477599  PMID: 26106442
Arthritis; Rheumatoid; Stress; Psychological; Personality; Emotions; Function; Prospective studies
3.  Depression, anxiety and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a five year longitudinal cohort study 
Background
Although depression and anxiety have been implicated in risk for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), a theoretical approach to identifying such putative links is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between theoretical conceptualisations of depression and anxiety with MACCE at the diagnostic and symptom dimension level.
Methods
Before coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, patients (N = 158; 20.9 % female) underwent a structured clinical interview to determine caseness for depression and anxiety disorders. Depression and anxiety disorders were arranged into the distress cluster (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder) and fear cluster (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia). Patients also completed the self-report Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, measuring anhedonia, anxious arousal and general distress/negative affect symptom dimensions. Incident MACCE was defined as fatal or non-fatal; myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, repeat revascularization, heart failure, sustained arrhythmia, stroke or cerebrovascular accident, left ventricular failure and mortality due to cardiac causes. Time-to-MACCE was determined by hazard modelling after adjustment for EuroSCORE, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, heart failure and peripheral vascular disease.
Results
In the total sample, there were 698 cumulative person years of survival for analysis with a median follow-up of 4.6 years (interquartile range 4.2 to 5.2 years) and 37 MACCE (23.4 % of total). After covariate adjustment, generalized anxiety disorder was associated with MACCE (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.79, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.00-7.80, p = 0.049). The distress disorders were not significantly associated with MACCE risk (HR = 2.14; 95 % CI .92-4.95, p = 0.077) and neither were the fear-disorders (HR = 0.24, 95 % CI .05-1.20, p = 0.083). None of the symptom dimensions were significantly associated with MACCE.
Conclusions
Generalized anxiety disorder was significantly associated with MACCE at follow-up after CABG surgery. The findings encourage further research pertaining to generalized anxiety disorder, and theoretical conceptualizations of depression, general distress and anxiety in persons undergoing CABG surgery.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0041-5
PMCID: PMC4445298  PMID: 26019721
Coronary artery bypass grafts; Coronary heart disease; Depression; Generalized anxiety disorder; Prognosis; Survival analysis; Cardiovascular disease
4.  Relationship between duration of illness and cardiac autonomic nervous activity in anorexia nervosa 
Background
The mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) is high, and death is mainly attributable to cardiac events. A wide range of autonomic nervous system disturbances may be mechanisms underlying the increased cardiovascular mortality and sudden death of patients with AN. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven to be a reliable noninvasive method for quantitative assessment of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of heart rate (HR). The longer the duration of illness of AN patients, the higher the mortality rate. However, there have been few reports on the relationship between the duration of illness and HRV in AN. Hence, the aims of this study were to compare the cardiac autonomic nervous activity (CANA) of female patients with AN and age-matched female controls and to evaluate the relationship between the duration of illness and the CANA of the AN patients.
Methods
We studied 14 female patients with AN and 22 age-matched healthy women. Beat-to-beat heart rate variability, recorded in a supine position, was investigated using power spectral analysis.
Result
Mean heart rate was positively correlated with normalized high-frequency (HF: 0.15 to 0.40 Hz) power and negatively correlated with the low-frequency (LF: 0.04 to 0.15 Hz)/HF power (LF/HF) ratio of the controls. On the other hand, duration of illness was negatively correlated with normalized HF power and positively correlated with the LF/HF ratio of the AN patients.
Conclusions
These results suggest that, given that the LF/HF ratio is an estimate of cardiac sympathovagal balance, anorectic patients with a long illness duration display lower vagal tone (parasympathetic withdrawal) and high sympathetic tone.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0032-6
PMCID: PMC4407323  PMID: 25908939
Anorexia nervosa; Heart rate variability; Low-frequency power; High-frequency power; Cardiac autonomic nervous activity
5.  Inpatient and outpatient costs in patients with coronary artery disease and mental disorders: a systematic review 
Background
To systematically review in- and outpatient costs in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and comorbid mental disorders.
Methods
A comprehensive database search was conducted for studies investigating persons with CAD and comorbid mental disorders (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Psyndex, EconLit, IBSS). All studies were included which allowed a comparison of in- and outpatient health care costs (assessed either monetarily or in terms of health care utilization) of CAD patients with comorbid mental disorders (mood, anxiety, alcohol, eating, somatoform and personality disorders) and those without. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and results reported using forest plots.
Results
The literature search resulted in 7,275 potentially relevant studies, of which 52 met inclusion criteria. Hospital readmission rates were increased in CAD patients with any mental disorder (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.34 [0.17;0.51]). Results for depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder pointed in the same direction with heterogeneous SMDs on a primary study level ranging from −0.44 to 1.26. Length of hospital stay was not increased in anxiety and any mental disorder, while studies on depression reported heterogeneous SMDs ranging from −0.08 to 0.82. Most studies reported increased overall and outpatient costs for patients with comorbid mental disorders. Results for invasive procedures were non-significant respectively inconclusive.
Conclusions
Comorbid mental disorders in CAD patients are associated with an increased healthcare utilization in terms of higher hospital readmission rates and increased overall and outpatient health care costs. From a health care point of view, it is requisite to improve the diagnosis and treatment of comorbid mental disorders in patients with CAD to minimize incremental costs.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0039-z
PMCID: PMC4427919  PMID: 25969694
Coronary artery disease; Mental disorder; Depression; Comorbidity; Health care costs; Systematic review
7.  A large-scale survey of adverse events experienced in yoga classes 
Background
Yoga is a representative mind-body therapy of complementary and alternative medicine. In Japan, yoga is practiced widely to promote health, but yoga-associated adverse events have also been reported. To date, the frequencies and characteristics of yoga-related adverse events have not been elucidated. This study was conducted to elucidate the frequencies and characteristics of adverse events of yoga performed in classes and the risk factors of such events.
Methods
The subjects were 2508 people taking yoga classes and 271 yoga therapists conducting the classes. A survey for yoga class attendees was performed on adverse events that occurred during a yoga class on the survey day. A survey for yoga therapists was performed on adverse events that the therapists had observed in their students to date. Adverse events were defined as “undesirable symptoms or responses that occurred during a yoga class”.
Results
Among 2508 yoga class attendees, 1343 (53.5%) had chronic diseases and 1063 (42.3%) were receiving medication at hospitals. There were 687 class attendees (27.8%) who reported some type of undesirable symptoms after taking a yoga class. Musculoskeletal symptoms such as myalgia were the most common symptoms, involving 297 cases, followed by neurological symptoms and respiratory symptoms. Most adverse events (63.8%) were mild and did not interfere with class participation. The risk factors for adverse events were examined, and the odds ratios for adverse events were significantly higher in attendees with chronic disease, poor physical condition on the survey day, or a feeling that the class was physically and mentally stressful. In particular, the occurrence of severe adverse events that interfered with subsequent yoga practice was high among elderly participants (70 years or older) and those with chronic musculoskeletal diseases.
Conclusions
The results of this large-scale survey demonstrated that approximately 30% of yoga class attendees had experienced some type of adverse event. Although the majority had mild symptoms, the survey results indicated that attendees with chronic diseases were more likely to experience adverse events associated with their disease. Therefore, special attention is necessary when yoga is introduced to patients with stress-related, chronic diseases.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0037-1
PMCID: PMC4384376  PMID: 25844090
Yoga; Adverse event; Risk factor; Stress; Large-scale survey
8.  Psychosomatic treatment for allergic diseases 
Summary
Many reports have been published concerning how psychosocial stress influences the occurrence and progression of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, a typical allergic disease often accompanied by psychosomatic related problems, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), international medical guidelines for asthma, describes psychosocial problems as causative factors of poor asthma control and as risk factors for asthma exacerbation, even if symptoms are well controlled. However, because there is little high quality evidence for effective treatments for asthma patients with psychosocial problems, concrete assessments and treatments for such problems is scarcely described in GINA. Therefore, psychosomatic intervention for asthma patients is not effectively conducted on a worldwide scale. In contrast, the “Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases” describe the assessment and treatment of psychosomatic disorders in detail. In the guidelines, psychosocial factors are classified into five categories; 1) Relation between stress and asthma occurrence or progression, 2) Relation between emotion and asthma symptoms, 3) Problems related to a patient’s character and behaviors, 4) Problems of daily life and Quality of Life (QOL), and 5) Problems related to family relationships and life history. The employment of a self-administered questionnaire, the “Psychosomatic Questionnaire related to Asthmatic Occurrence and Progression”, is useful for clarifying psychosocial factors and for setting up treatment strategies according to the problems identified. The Japanese guidelines have been proven to be useful, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is still relatively limited. It will be necessary in the future to accumulate high-quality evidence and to revise the psychosomatic approaches in the guidelines that are universally valid.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0036-2
PMCID: PMC4384507  PMID: 25844089
Allergy; Stress; Asthma; Psychosomatic assessment; Psychosomatic treatment; Psychosomatic disorder; Guideline
9.  Parental stress and the onset and course of childhood asthma 
The influence of a caregiver’s stress on the development of childhood asthma is an important aspect of the treatment and prevention of illness. Many cross-sectional studies have investigated the association between parenting attitude and/or caregiver’s stress and childhood asthma morbidity, but prospective studies are more advantageous than cross-sectional studies in interpreting a causal relationship from the results. We here present an overview of prospective studies that have reported a relationship between parental stress and the morbidity or course of childhood asthma and discuss the role of parental mental health in its prevention and treatment. Almost all of the studies referred to in this paper show that caregiver (mostly mothers) stress contributed to the onset and to a poor prognosis, while only a few studies have examined the adverse effect of paternal stress on childhood asthma. Their results are inconsistent, and there is insufficient data examining specific stress-related properties that can be targeted in intervention studies. Not only maternal but also paternal influence should be considered in future studies, and it will be important to assess specific stress-related properties that can be the foundation of specific intervention methods.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0034-4
PMCID: PMC4349604  PMID: 25741380
Psychological stress; Personality; Caregiver; Parent; Childhood asthma; Prospective study
10.  Anger tendency may be associated with duration of illness in panic disorder 
Background
Several studies have reported an increased tendency towards anger in patients with panic disorder (PD). If this propensity for anger arises from the pathological process of PD, it may be associated with the duration of the illness. The present study therefore examined the relationship between duration of PD and the personality tendency to experience anger in PD patients.
Methods
Participants were 413 patients (132 men and 281 women; age = 38.7 years) with PD. Diagnoses were confirmed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Illness duration ranged from less than a year to 51 years. After participants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, we examined the association between illness duration and the Angry Hostility and Impulsiveness subscale scores. In the analysis, participants were divided into two groups by duration of illness (long group, n = 186 and short group, n = 200) using the median value (9 years) as a cut-off because of the skewed distribution of the duration. Patients with an illness duration of 9 years (n = 27) were excluded from the comparison.
Results
The duration of illness was significantly correlated with the Angry Hostility score (p = 0.002) after controlling for age. Scores were significantly higher in the long group than in the short group (p = 0.04). No significant association was observed between Impulsiveness scores and duration of illness.
Conclusion
The present study suggests that longer PD duration is related to a stronger tendency to experience anger.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0035-3
PMCID: PMC4349781  PMID: 25745511
Panic disorder; Illness duration; Anger; Personality
11.  Reviewer acknowledgement 2014 
Contributing reviewers
The BioPsychoSocial Medicine editorial team would like to thank the following colleagues who contributed to peer review for the journal in Volume 8 (2014).
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0033-5
PMCID: PMC4324041  PMID: 25674155
12.  Effect of prolonged stress on the adrenal hormones of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome 
Background
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged stress on the salivary adrenal hormones (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], DHEA-sulfate [DHEA-S]) of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Methods
The participants were female college students, including 10 with IBS and 16 without IBS (control group), who were scheduled for a 2-week teaching practice at a kindergarten. Participants were asked to collect saliva for determining adrenal hormones immediately and 30 min after awakening and before sleep, 2 weeks before the practice, the first week of the practice, the second week of the practice, and a few days after the practice.
Results
Regarding cortisol/DHEA ratio, significantly increased levels were found during the first week of the practice, and a significant interaction between group and time was found; the ratio at 30 min after awakening in the IBS group was higher than that in the control group. For the other adrenal hormone indexes, no significant differences due to the presence of IBS were found.
Conclusions
Individuals with IBS showed an elevated cortisol/DHEA ratio after awakening compared with individuals without IBS, and the elevated ratio peaked under the prolonged stress. The present study suggests that the cortisol effect is dominant in individuals with IBS under prolonged stress.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0031-7
PMCID: PMC4308893  PMID: 25632298
Irritable bowel syndrome; Cortisol; Dehydroepiandrosterone; Saliva; Prolonged stress
13.  Psychosocial factors are preventive against coronary events in Japanese men with coronary artery disease: The Eastern Collaborative Group Study 7.7-year follow-up experience 
Background
The Japanese Coronary-prone Behaviour Scale (JCBS) is a questionnaire developed by the Eastern Collaborative Group Study (ECGS), a multi-centre study of coronary-prone behaviour among Japanese men. Subscale C of the JCBS consists of 9 items that have been independently associated with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG). There have been no reports of a relationship between any behavioural factor and the prognosis of CAD in Japan. The purpose of the current study was to investigate behavioural correlations with the prognosis of CAD as a part of the ECGS.
Methods
We examined the mortality and coronary events of 201 men (58 ± 10, 27-86 years) enrolled in the ECGS from 1990 to 1995, who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography and were administered the JCBS and the Japanese version of the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) Form C. Their health information after CAG was determined by a review of their medical records and by telephone interviews that took place from 2002 to 2003.
Results
Cardiac events during the follow-up period (7.7 ± 4.2 years) included 13 deaths from CAD, 25 cases of new-onset myocardial infarction, 26 cases of percutaneous coronary intervention, and 19 cases of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. There was no difference in established risk factors between groups with and without cardiac events. Seven factors were extracted by principal component analysis in order to clarify which factors were measured by the JCBS. Stepwise multivariate Cox-hazard regression analysis, in which 9 standard coronary risk factors were forced into the model, showed that Factor 4 from the JCBS (namely, the Japanese spirit of ‘Wa’) was independently associated with coronary events (hazard ratio: 0.21; p = 0.01). By other Cox-hazards regression analyses of coronary events using each set of JAS scores and the JCBS Scale C score instead of Factor 4 as selectable variables, the JAS scores or the JCBS Scale C score were not entered into the models.
Conclusion
The Japanese spirit of ‘Wa’ is a preventive factor against coronary events for Japanese men with CAD.
doi:10.1186/s13030-015-0030-8
PMCID: PMC4304146  PMID: 25621004
Coronary artery disease; Prognosis; Risk; Behavioural medicine; Psychosocial factor; Japanese
14.  Development of an ecological momentary assessment scale for appetite 
Background
An understanding of eating behaviors is an important element of health education and treatment in clinical populations. To understand the biopsychosocial profile of eating behaviors in an ecologically valid way, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is appropriate because its use is able to overcome the recall bias in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). As appetite is a key PRO associated with eating behaviors, this study was done to develop an EMA scale to evaluate the within-individual variation of momentary appetite and uses this scale to discuss the relationships between appetite and various psychological factors.
Methods
Twenty healthy participants (age 23.6 ± 4.2 years old) wore a watch-type computer for a week. Several times a day, including just before and after meals, they recorded their momentary psychological stress, mood states, and ten items related to appetite. In addition, they recorded everything they ate and drank into a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based food diary. Multilevel factor analysis was used to investigate the factor structure of the scale, and the reliability and validity of the scale were also explored.
Results
Multilevel factor analyses found two factors at the within-individual level (hunger/fullness and cravings) and one factor at the between-individual level. Medians for the individually calculated Cronbach’s alphas were 0.89 for hunger/fullness, 0.71 for cravings, and 0.86 for total appetite (the sum of all items). Hunger/fullness, cravings, and total appetite all decreased significantly after meals compared with those before meals, and hunger/fullness, cravings, and total appetite before meals were positively associated with energy intake. There were significant negative associations between both hunger/fullness and total appetite and anxiety and depression as well as between cravings, and depression, anxiety and stress.
Conclusions
The within-individual reliability of the EMA scale to assess momentary appetite was confirmed in most subjects and it was also validated as a useful tool to understand eating behaviors in daily settings. Further refinement of the scale is necessary and further investigations need to be conducted, particularly on clinical populations.
doi:10.1186/s13030-014-0029-6
PMCID: PMC4302437  PMID: 25614760
Appetite; Ecological momentary assessment; Food diary; Multilevel factor analysis
15.  Absence of change in the gray matter volume of patients with ulcerative colitis in remission: a voxel based morphometry study 
Background
Recent neuroimaging studies have investigated the brain involvement in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Functional studies found abnormalities in cognitive and emotional functions in CD and UC, while a voxel based morphometry (VBM) study found morphological changes in CD. We conducted a VBM study to compare the gray matter (GM) volume of UC patients and controls.
Methods
Eighteen UC patients in remission and eighteen healthy controls underwent structural MRI. VBM is a fully automated technique allowing identification of regional differences in the amount of GM, which enables an objective analysis of the whole brain. VBM was used for comparisons between patients and controls.
Results
UC patients were all in remission and had a mild clinical course. There were no differences between patients and controls in GM volume.
Conclusion
The brain morphology of patients with UC in remission is similar to controls. The lack of GM abnormalities in UC patients might reflect the mild clinical course of the inflammatory bowel disorder. Further research involving patients with different degrees of disease severity or during flares could shed more light on potential brain structural changes in UC.
doi:10.1186/s13030-014-0028-7
PMCID: PMC4302580  PMID: 25614759
Ulcerative Colitis; Voxel based morphometry; Gray matter volume
16.  Isometric yoga improves the fatigue and pain of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome who are resistant to conventional therapy: a randomized, controlled trial 
Background
Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) often complain of persistent fatigue even after conventional therapies such as pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, or graded exercise therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate in a randomized, controlled trial the feasibility and efficacy of isometric yoga in patients with CFS who are resistant to conventional treatments.
Methods
This trial enrolled 30 patients with CFS who did not have satisfactory improvement after receiving conventional therapy for at least six months. They were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with either conventional pharmacotherapy (control group, n = 15) or conventional therapy together with isometric yoga practice that consisted of biweekly, 20-minute sessions with a yoga instructor and daily in-home sessions (yoga group, n = 15) for approximately two months. The short-term effect of isometric yoga on fatigue was assessed by administration of the Profile of Mood Status (POMS) questionnaire immediately before and after the final 20-minute session with the instructor. The long-term effect of isometric yoga on fatigue was assessed by administration of the Chalder’s Fatigue Scale (FS) questionnaire to both groups before and after the intervention. Adverse events and changes in subjective symptoms were recorded for subjects in the yoga group.
Results
All subjects completed the intervention. The mean POMS fatigue score decreased significantly (from 21.9 ± 7.7 to 13.8 ± 6.7, P < 0.001) after a yoga session. The Chalder’s FS score decreased significantly (from 25.9 ± 6.1 to 19.2 ± 7.5, P = 0.002) in the yoga group, but not in the control group. In addition to the improvement of fatigue, two patients with CFS and fibromyalgia syndrome in the yoga group also reported pain relief. Furthermore, many subjects reported that their bodies became warmer and lighter after practicing isometric yoga. Although there were no serious adverse events in the yoga group, two patients complained of tiredness and one of dizziness after the first yoga session with the instructor.
Conclusions
Isometric yoga as an add-on therapy is both feasible and successful at relieving the fatigue and pain of a subset of therapy-resistant patients with CFS.
Trial registration
University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN CTR) UMIN000009646.
doi:10.1186/s13030-014-0027-8
PMCID: PMC4269854  PMID: 25525457
Chronic fatigue syndrome; Isometric yoga; Fatigue; Treatment; Fibromyalgia
17.  Management of post-hyperventilation apnea during dental treatment under monitored anesthesia care with propofol 
Although hyperventilation syndrome generally carries a good prognosis, it is associated with the risk of developing severe symptoms, such as post-hyperventilation apnea with hypoxemia and loss of consciousness. We experienced a patient who suffered from post-hyperventilation apnea. A 17-year-old female who suffered from hyperventilation syndrome for several years developed post-hyperventilation apnea after treatment using the paper bag rebreathing method and sedative administration during a dental procedure. We subsequently successfully provided her with monitored anesthesia care with propofol. Monitored anesthesia care with propofol may be effective for the general management of patients who have severe hyperventilation attacks and post-hyperventilation apnea. This case demonstrates that appropriate emergency treatment should be available for patients with hyperventilation attacks who are at risk of developing post-hyperventilation apnea associated with hypoxemia and loss of consciousness.
doi:10.1186/s13030-014-0026-9
PMCID: PMC4260203  PMID: 25493097
Post-hyperventilation apnea; Propofol; Dental treatment
18.  Factors affecting the dental erosion severity of patients with eating disorders 
Background
Intraoral disease is a common occurrence in patients with eating disorders, particularly dental erosion, which frequently becomes severe and may hinder daily life. The severity varies from patient to patient. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may help prevent dental erosion in these patients. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between the severity of erosion and the behavior of patients with eating disorders, with a focus on daily diet and vomiting behavior.
Methods
A total 71 female eating disorder outpatients from the Clinical Center of Psychosomatic Dentistry of Nippon Dental University Hospital and the Psychosomatic Internal Medicine Department of Kudanzaka Hospital or who were hospitalized at Hasegawa Hospital were enrolled. Dental erosion severity and location were determined by oral examination. Patients who induced vomiting were queried on their behavior during vomiting and on routine diet habits. Patients with dental erosion were further divided into mild and severe groups based on the lesion severity and the groups compared.
Results
Dental erosion was observed in 43 of 50 subjects who induced vomiting. Dental erosion was most frequent on the palatal side of the anterior maxillary teeth, occurring in 81.3% of the subjects. There were significant differences observed between the mild and severe groups according to post-vomiting oral hygiene. Significantly more subjects in the mild group consumed large amounts of water before vomiting, and significantly more subjects in the severe group routinely consumed carbonated beverages or sweetened food.
Conclusions
While self-induced vomiting is the main cause of dental erosion in eating disorder patients, the erosion severity may be affected by behavior when inducing vomiting or by routine consumption of certain foods and beverages. Addressing these factors may help prevent severe dental erosion in patients who chronically induce vomiting.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-25
PMCID: PMC4406023  PMID: 25904974
Eating disorders; Dentistry; Vomiting/PX; Vomiting/CO; Tooth erosion
19.  The effect of cognitive appraisal for stressors on the oral health-related QOL of dry mouth patients 
Background
Dry mouth is very common symptom, and psychological factors have an influence on this symptom. Although the influence of emotional factor related to patients with oral dryness has been examined in previous studies, the cognitive factors have not been examined thus far.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of cognitive factors on patients with oral dryness.
Methods
The participants were 106 patients complaining of oral dryness. They were required to complete a questionnaire measuring subjective oral dryness, oral-related QOL, cognition for stressors, and mood state.
Results
Correlational analyses revealed that OHIP-14 is significantly related to oral dryness, appraisal for effect, appraisal for threat, and commitment. These correlations were maintained even after controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety. Using oral dryness, appraisal for effect, appraisal for threat, and commitment, cluster analysis was done and three clusters (cluster-1, severe oral dryness; cluster-2, positive cognitive style: cluster-3, negative cognitive style) were extracted. The results of ANOVA showed that the group with severe oral dryness (cluster-1) had a significantly higher score on OHIP-14 than the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups with positive (cluster-2) and negative (cluster-3) cognitive style.
Conclusion
Although the group of patients with positive cognitive style complained of more severe oral dryness than the group with negative cognitive style, no significant difference was observed between these two groups in OHIP-14. These results indicate that cognitive factors would be a useful therapeutic target for the improvement of the oral-related QOL of patients with oral dryness.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-24
PMCID: PMC4445602  PMID: 26019720
Dry mouth; Cognitive appraisal; Health related QOL
20.  Social and psychological factors of the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students 
Background
Over the past few decades, concern about suicide by college students has been on the rise worldwide, in general and in China particularly. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of social and psychological factors on the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students.
Findings
Of the 540 students surveyed, 48 had a suicidal tendency to some extent. The highest rate of suicide was observed for fourth-year students, followed by the fifth-year, first-year, third-year, and second-year students. Female students and students not satisfied with their major had a higher rate of suicidal tendency. However, mature coping strategies had a protective effect on suicide. The stepwise regression analysis shows that academic burden, grade, and introversion/extraversion are the most significant risk factors for the suicidal tendency of Chinese medical students.
Conclusion
Suicide is affected by demographic risk factors as well as psychological factors. Our results lend support to a multi-factorial approach to the understanding and prevention of suicide by college students.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-23
PMCID: PMC4445600  PMID: 26019719
Chinese medical students; Suicidal tendency; Social factors; Psychological factors
21.  Orthostatic responses in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: contributions from expectancies as well as gravity 
Background
Orthostatic intolerance is common in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and several studies have documented an abnormal sympathetic predominance in the autonomic cardiovascular response to gravitational stimuli. The aim of this study was to explore whether the expectancies towards standing are contributors to autonomic responses in addition to the gravitational stimulus itself.
Methods
A total of 30 CFS patients (12–18 years of age) and 39 healthy controls underwent 20° head-up tilt test and a motor imagery protocol of standing upright. Beat-to-beat cardiovascular variables were recorded.
Results
At supine rest, CFS patients had significantly higher heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure, and lower stroke index and heart rate variability (HRV) indices. The response to 20° head-up tilt was identical in the two groups. The response to imaginary upright position was characterized by a stronger increase of HRV indices of sympathetic predominance (power in the low-frequency range as well as the ratio low-frequency: high-frequency power) among CFS patients.
Conclusions
These results suggest that in CFS patients expectancies towards orthostatic challenge might be additional determinants of autonomic cardiovascular modulation along with the gravitational stimulus per se.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-22
PMCID: PMC4166398  PMID: 25237387
Adolescence; Autonomic nervous system; Chronic fatigue syndrome; Expectancies; Orthostatic intolerance
22.  Depressive symptoms of female nursing staff working in stressful environments and their association with serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase – a preliminary study 
Background
The activity of creatine kinase (CK) in serum has recently been reported to be potentially associated with several types of depression. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether serum enzymes, including CK, vary even in a healthy population with depressive symptoms caused by work-related stress. We gave questionnaires and blood examinations to 93 healthy female nursing home workers and did an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of CK isozyme muscle-type M chain (CK-MM) in serum.
Findings
Depressive symptoms were determined using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and compared with the results of the blood examination and serum CK-MM levels. The CES-D results showed significant negative correlations with total CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and CK-MM level (r = -0.29, p = 0.0062; r = -0.29, p = 0.0065; r = -0.33, p = 0.0016, respectively).
Conclusions
Total CK and LDH activities and serum CK-MM level appear to be associated with the depressive symptoms of healthy nurses working in stressful environments, although the significance level was relatively low. The simultaneous detection of serum CK and LDH activities or serum CK-MM level and LDH activity may be useful as an indicator of depressive symptoms, at least for female nursing staff with work-related stress.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-21
PMCID: PMC4169250  PMID: 25243019
Creatine kinase; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale; Depressive symptom; Healthy female nursing staff
23.  The outcome of treatment for anorexia nervosa inpatients who required urgent hospitalization 
Background
This study was done to determine which psychosocial factors are related to the urgent hospitalization of anorexia nervosa patients (AN) due to extremely poor physical condition and to evaluate their outcome after inpatient treatment.
Methods
133 hospitalized AN patients were classified into an urgent hospitalization (n = 24) or a planned hospitalization (n = 109) group. Multiple regression analysis was done of clinical features, body mass index (BMI), psychological tests [The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), alexithymia, relationship with parents, and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI)]. The effectiveness of treatment was prospectively determined two years after discharge by the Global Clinical Score (GCS). The hospitalized weight gain and the frequency of outpatient visits were evaluated.
Results
Of the factors assessed, only BMI at admission was related to the necessity of urgent hospitalization (β = − 1.063, P = 0.00). The urgent group had significantly more weight loss after discharge and poorer social adaptation on the GCS, even when the patient had a sufficient increase in body weight during inpatient treatment and an equivalent number of outpatient consultations.
Conclusion
None of the parameters of the psychosocial tests studied were significantly different between the groups. The outcome of the urgent group was poor. Two years after discharge they had difficulty maintaining weight and continued to have poor social adaptation.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-20
PMCID: PMC4163679  PMID: 25225574
Anorexia nervosa; Urgent hospitalization; Outcome; BMI; MMPI; EDI
24.  Development of a novel, short, self-completed questionnaire on empowerment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an analysis of factors affecting patient empowerment 
Background
Patient empowerment has recently been proposed as an important concept in self-management for effective glycemic control. A concise self-completed questionnaire for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was created to comprehensively evaluate their empowerment on the basis of self-managed dietary/exercise behaviors, psychological impact, and family support. The reliability and validity of this short questionnaire were tested and factors relating to patient empowerment were analyzed.
Methods
The self-completed empowerment questionnaire was based on questionnaires for self-managed dietary and exercise behaviors, the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale, and the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist. The questionnaire was trialed on 338 male and female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who lived with family. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were investigated and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify factors that affect patient empowerment.
Results
The self-completed patient empowerment questionnaire included 13 questions on background data (e.g., age, gender, and HbA1c) and 18 questions within five scales to assess self-managed dietary behaviors, self-managed exercise behaviors, and psychological impact of diabetes, as well as positive and negative feedback in patient-family communication. The questionnaire showed sufficient internal consistency, construct validity, reproducibility, factorial construct validity, and concurrent validity. The results were generally satisfactory, and the questionnaire reflected the particular characteristics of treatment methods. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that patient empowerment was strongly affected by the number of disease-related symptoms, age, and gender.
Conclusions
The results suggest that the concise self-completed empowerment questionnaire developed here is useful for measuring the empowerment of individual patients and evaluating the impact of symptoms and therapies on empowerment.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-19
PMCID: PMC4151376  PMID: 25183994
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Empowerment questionnaire; Appraisal of diabetes scale; Diabetes family behavior checklist; Self-managed behavior
25.  Unhappiness and mortality: evidence from a middle-income Southeast Asian setting 
Background
A relationship between happiness and mortality might seem obvious, but outside of affluent settings in developed countries there is almost no actual evidence that this is so.
Findings
We report our findings on happiness and mortality in Buddhist Southeast Asia. Our data are derived from a prospective nationwide cohort study of 60,569 Thai adults reporting in 2009 and followed up for all-cause mortality over the next four years (296 deaths). We also gathered data on a wide array of covariates and included these in the final model of the unhappiness-mortality effect. All final effect estimates were mutually adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and cohort members who reported being happy ‘little’ or ‘none of the time’ in 2009 were more likely to die (AOR 2.60, 95% Confidence Interval 1.17-5.80). Other significant covariates include being female (<40 years AOR 0.66, ≥40 years AOR 0.57), unmarried (AOR 1.64) and current smokers (AOR 2.45).
Conclusion
Our study provides empirical evidence that the epidemiological effect of happiness is not confined to affluent Western countries, but it also increases the probability of staying alive in a middle-income Asian country.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-18
PMCID: PMC4126076  PMID: 25110517
Happiness; Mortality; Psychological wellbeing; Cohort study; Thailand

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