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2.  Organizational change in the Medical Library Association: evolution of the continuing education program. 
"Change" is a critical dimension of contemporary experience. Library associations are not exempt, and they change in ways similar to other organizations. According to some authorities, four phases typify the process: diagnosis, design, implementation, and incorporation. Focusing on changes in the Medical Library Association's longstanding program of continuing education, the authors utilize the "phase framework" to chart that association's movement from a management system depending primarily upon volunteers to one in which professional staff figure prominently. The historical review serves a heuristic purpose for individuals and institutions in identifying characteristic features of the change process.
PMCID: PMC227749  PMID: 3329921
6.  Information needs of clinical teams: analysis of questions received by the Clinical Informatics Consult Service 
Objectives: To examine the types of questions received by Clinical Informatics Consult Service (CICS) librarians from clinicians on rounds and to analyze the number of clearly differentiated viewpoints provided in response.
Design: Questions were retrieved from an internal database, the CICS Knowledge Base, and analyzed for redundancy by subject analysis. The unique questions were classified into ten categories by subject. Treatment-related questions were analyzed for the number of viewpoints represented in the librarian's response.
Results: The CICS Knowledge Base contained 476 unique questions and 71 redundant questions. Among the unique queries, the top two categories accounted for 67%: treatment (36%) and disease description (31%). Within the treatment-related subset, 138 questions (59%) required representation of more than one viewpoint in the librarian's response.
Discussion: Questions generated by clinicians frequently require comprehensive, critical appraisal of the medical literature, a need that can be filled by librarians trained in such techniques. This study demonstrates that many questions require representation of more than one viewpoint to answer completely. Moreover, the redundancy rate underscores the need for resources like the CICS Knowledge Base. By critically analyzing the medical literature, CICS librarians are providing a time-saving and valuable service for clinicians and charting new territory for librarians.
PMCID: PMC31725  PMID: 11337949
7.  The information behaviors of life and health scientists and health care providers: characteristics of the research literature. 
BACKGROUND: In a literature-based discussion of research on the information behaviors of life and health scientists and health care practitioners, the problem of characterizing this complex literature is discussed. The issue of terminology for this interdisciplinary area is raised. The paucity of models for information seeking behavior that have been tested in a health care population is discussed, as are the frequently used methods of investigation and data collection methods. METHODS: By analyzing a large number of information behavior research studies, the questions of who does the research and where the research is published are answered. The characteristics of this research are discussed. Studies are cited that investigate the information behavior of physicians, multidisplinary groups of health professionals, medical students and faculty, nurses and other allied health personnel, life scientists, and basic science researchers. Two short case studies--on the diffusion of medical knowledge and on drug information and physician behavior--are used as examples of information behavior research. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of studying the information behavior of health and life scientists and health care providers is underscored by a discussion of the implications for further study.
PMCID: PMC226386  PMID: 9681174
8.  Document needs in a rural GRATEFUL MED outreach project. 
An analysis of documents provided to eight rural Illinois hospital sites during a GRATEFUL MED outreach project involving end-user searching revealed significant patterns that have implications for collection development and information services in small, underserved hospitals. Document requests were analyzed by user groups making the requests, subject matter, inclusion on the Brandon/Hill lists and in Abridged Index Medicus, and publication date. Of the 359 documents requested, 86% came from health professional groups other than physicians and nurses. Eighty-five percent of all requests came from two sites that had active project-trained intermediaries, with most requests forwarded by the intermediaries. Subject analysis revealed a strong need for administrative and allied health information in addition to clinical information. Fewer than half of the titles on the recommended lists were requested during the project. Most documents requested had been published in the past five years. Introduction of end-user searching is not the complete answer to improved information access at small hospitals; the authors conclude that basic collections and library personnel are still needed locally to respond effectively to health professionals' information needs.
PMCID: PMC225956  PMID: 7841902
9.  Health science libraries in the United States: a five-year perspective. 
Two surveys of the universe of health science libraries in the United States have been completed by the Medical Library Association's Committee on Surveys and Statistics over a five-year period. This paper compares, for 1969 and 1973, summary data on the universe, and the distribution of libraries, resources, personnel, and salaries.
PMCID: PMC198849  PMID: 1109620
10.  MLA's professional development program: how we took control of our future. 
This article, which focuses primarily on the last fifty years, reviews the evolution and expansion of MLA's professional development activities. It shows how an integrated professional development program has emerged from a group of individual activities with little coordination among them. Continuing review, discussion, and new initiatives are needed to ensure that the membership is equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to function effectively in the twenty-first century.
PMCID: PMC226355  PMID: 9578941
11.  Circulation of core collection monographs in an academic medical library 
Academic medical librarians responsible for monograph acquisition face a challenging task. From the plethora of medical monographs published each year, academic medical librarians must select those most useful to their patrons. Unfortunately, none of the selection tools available to medical librarians are specifically intended to assist academic librarians with medical monograph selection. The few short core collection lists that are available are intended for use in the small hospital or internal medicine department library. As these are the only selection tools available, however, many academic medical librarians spend considerable time reviewing these collection lists and place heavy emphasis on the acquisition of listed books. The study reported here was initiated to determine whether the circulation of listed books in an academic library justified the emphasis placed on the acquisition of these books. Circulation statistics for “listed” and “nonlisted” books in the hematology (WH) section of Indiana University School of Medicine's Ruth Lilly Medical Library were studied. The average circulation figures for listed books were nearly two times as high as the corresponding figures for the WH books in general. These data support the policies of those academic medical libraries that place a high priority on collection of listed books.
PMCID: PMC31723  PMID: 11337947
12.  Hospital librarians and the Medical Library Association. 
Hospital librarians have been active participants in and contributors to the Medical Library Association since it was founded. This article reviews the history of the Hospital Libraries Section and provides some personal observations on the contributions the association has made to hospital librarians and their growing influence on the association.
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PMCID: PMC226356  PMID: 9578942
13.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC226610
14.  Brandon/Hill selected list of books and journals in allied health. 
This list of 410 books and 78 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and described in the AMA's Health Professions Education Directory, 1997-1998, plus physical therapist and medical secretary. Some programs do not have their own specific literatures. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (160 books and 31 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1998 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $29,180. The cost of only the asterisked items total $11,390.
PMCID: PMC226436  PMID: 9803286
15.  Information needs of rural health professionals: a retrospective use study. 
To explore the information needs of rural health professionals, a retrospective study was undertaken of 1,224 document delivery requests made during the course of three outreach projects in west and central Illinois. The 547 unique journals from which the articles were requested were analyzed for frequency of request, subject content, and inclusion on core lists. These rural health professionals were found to request current information on a wide range of topics in clinical medicine, nursing, health administration, allied health, social sciences, and basic sciences. While 10% of the titles filled 37% of the requests, 58% of the titles were requested once and filled 26% of the requests. A high correlation with Abridged Index Medicus and Brandon/Hill list titles was found, but titles from either of these lists could fill no more than 30% of the total requests. Besides demonstrating the complex information needs of rural health professionals and depicting the difficulty of building a collection to support them, the study exemplifies a method for need-based journal collection development and begins to identify titles commonly requested in a rural health setting.
PMCID: PMC226290  PMID: 9431422
16.  The impact of technology upon medical history research: the past, the problems, the potential. 
The stereotypical view of the historian is that of a stodgy, bespectacled individual poring over tomes of printed text, dusty manuscripts, and thousands of index cards. In the twentieth century, however, many historians have relied increasingly on technological aids to assist in research. This paper focuses on technological developments of this century that have had some impact on medical history research, beginning with the photostat early in this century. It is argued that online bibliographic databases, although relatively recent and not yet fully developed, are only the beginning of technological aids to historical research. Other computer-assisted historiographical applications are examined and the potentials of developing technologies are explored. The specific and inherent problems of using technology in historical research are also presented, as is the need for an evolving role of libraries in dealing with these problems.
PMCID: PMC227757  PMID: 3329922
17.  The Academic Health Sciences Library and Serial Selection 
A review of efforts to formulate basic medical journal lists and a report of a survey of subscriptions held in academic health science libraries is presented. The subscriptions held by thirty-seven libraries were analyzed to determine those held by 60-100% of the sample. A comparison of those titles subscribed to by 90-100% of the sample reveals that most of these titles appear in the lists formulated by other studies.
PMCID: PMC198795  PMID: 4466506
18.  Clinical librarianship 
PMCID: PMC35263  PMID: 11055309
19.  Brandon/Hill selected list of print books and journals in allied health* 
This list of 424 books and 77 journals is intended as a selection guide for print literature to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and recognized by the American Medical Association and other accrediting bodies. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (167 books and 31 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (2000 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $31,970. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $12,515.
PMCID: PMC35230  PMID: 10928707
21.  Library instruction in the medical school curriculum: a survey of medical college libraries. 
Future physicians must learn to cope with continuing changes in access to medical information. New instructional techniques, such as problem-based learning, emphasize the importance of research skills to medical students. To investigate the feasibility of establishing library instruction as a required part of the East Tennessee State University College of Medicine curriculum for undergraduates, the university's medical library surveyed 123 medical school libraries to determine the level of instruction offered by other academic medical libraries. The survey asked whether formal instruction was offered or required, and which courses were taught at each level of undergraduate training. Analysis of the fifty-five responses revealed that 75% offered formal library instruction, and that 49% of these respondents (36% of the total sample) required all students to take such courses. The courses offered most often were library tours, online catalog instruction, and MEDLINE-on-CD-ROM classes. Overall, thirty-three different course titles were offered by responding libraries. The majority of classes involved second- and third-year students. The survey responses reveal the prevalence of required library instruction in medical school curricula, and a broad-scale commitment to the development of lifelong learning skills among future health professionals.
PMCID: PMC299401  PMID: 8826622
22.  The changing continuing education role of health sciences libraries. 
Libraries have always organizationally supported the continuing education (CE) objectives of their respective institutions. As CE experts increase their understanding of the learning process and the factors that make CE opportunities successful, it is important that health sciences librarians use this knowledge to enhance their positions as key players in the CE field. This paper surveys the literature related to the roles of health sciences libraries in CE, reports an informal survey of health sciences librarians, and identifies innovative services that integrate the library with the lifelong learning processes of its users. Four distinct support areas are identified in which the library relates to CE (resources, content, education, and information management), illustrating traditional library CE roles and suggesting new opportunities. To be successful in improving the library's role in CE, librarians must attend to their own lifelong learning needs, increase collaboration with educators and CE providers, participate in research that addresses the learning and information assimilation processes, and actively involve the library in the quality filtering process.
PMCID: PMC225373  PMID: 2328367
23.  Adapting IAIMS to a hospital library level. 
The Children's Hospital of Michigan Medical Library has adapted several of the Integrated Academic Information Management Systems (IAIMS) concepts and implemented them at a hospital library level. These have included features of network development, electronic interfacing and interlinking, and implementing an integrated information system in the library. The library has incorporated several information systems into library operations, including a variety of in-house, local, and national automated systems and telecommunication networks. Hospital libraries can incorporate IAIMS features and promote an institutional framework of interconnecting communication systems and electronic linkages.
PMCID: PMC227488  PMID: 2790343
24.  Health sciences libraries: strategies in an era of changing economics. 
Libraries in health care settings reflect their parent institutions, which, in turn, are affected by environmental changes. The economic climate of the 1980s, unleashing competitive forces and threatening the survival of some institutions, has had a major impact on both hospitals and academic health centers. The challenge to libraries of these institutions calls for reassessment of programs and realignment in their power structures. It is argued that libraries which position themselves to capitalize on the current economic environment will create a future with new opportunities.
PMCID: PMC227601  PMID: 3828607
25.  Hospital libraries in the United States: historical antecedents. 
The hospital health sciences library of today that reaches out to the world knowledge base through electronic networks bears little resemblance to its forebears. Yet to understand the challenges and future directions of the hospital library it is necessary to examine how it began and how it has evolved in more than 200 years. This paper identifies five developmental periods in which major strides were made: the colonial years through the 19th century; World War I to the Great Depression; World War II and the 1950s; the 1960s--the Great Society and the Medical Library Assistance Act; and the 1970s, an era of growth for hospital libraries.
PMCID: PMC227539  PMID: 3884070

Results 1-25 (8363)