Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a formal mentorship program at a college of pharmacy.
Methods. After extensive review of the mentorship literature within the health sciences, a formal mentorship program was developed between 2006 and 2008 to support and facilitate faculty development. The voluntary program was implemented after mentors received training, and mentors and protégés were matched and received an orientation. Evaluation consisted of conducting annual surveys and focus groups with mentors and protégés.
Results. Fifty-one mentor-protégé pairs were formed from 2009 to 2012. A large majority of the mentors (82.8%-96.9%) were satisfied with the mentorship program and its procedures. The majority of the protégés (≥70%) were satisfied with the mentorship program, mentor-protégé relationship, and program logistics. Both mentors and protégés reported that the protégés most needed guidance on time management, prioritization, and work-life balance. While there were no significant improvements in the proteges’ number of grant submissions, retention rates, or success in promotion/tenure, the total number of peer-reviewed publications by junior faculty members was significantly higher after program implementation (mean of 7 per year vs 21 per year, p=0.03) in the college’s pharmacy practice and administration department.
Conclusions. A formal mentorship program was successful as measured by self-reported assessments of mentors and protégés.
mentorship; mentor; protégé; pharmacy; faculty
A small nonprofit private college with limited resources and a high proportion of junior faculty developed a nontraditional external faculty mentor program in the summer of 2011 in response to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty survey data regarding the professional development needs of pharmacy faculty members. Experienced faculty members with national reputations from other colleges and schools of pharmacy were hired as consultants to serve as mentors for assigned faculty members. Program goals were to provide directed, individual mentorship for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty members, expand peer review of faculty teaching prowess, and enhance monthly faculty development programming. The latter was based upon the specific needs assessment of the faculty. Program outcomes reported will include faculty satisfaction (AACP faculty survey data) changes over time, achievement of board certification for clinical faculty members and other credentialing, and other benchmarks, eg, publications, grant funding, service engagement (site development, professional organizations), after the implementation of the nontraditional faculty-mentoring program.
Those involved in providing faculty development may be among only a few individuals for whom faculty development is an interest and priority within their work setting. Furthermore, funding to support faculty development is limited. In 2010, an interprofessional, self-formed, faculty learning community on faculty development in teaching was established to promote collaboration on faculty development initiatives that have transference to faculty members across disciplines and to share expertise and resources for wider impact. The organic structure and processes of the faculty learning community created an environment that has not only resulted in an increased offering of faculty development opportunities and resources across the health science campus, but has created a rich environment that combines the knowledge, innovation, and experience to promote collaborative efforts that benefit all. The background, structure, processes, successes, and lessons learned of the interprofessional faculty learning community on faculty development in teaching are described.
faculty development; faculty learning community; interprofessional
Objective. To describe a teaching challenge intended to increase faculty use of evidence-based and student-centered instructional strategies in the demanding school of pharmacy context with technology-savvy students.
Design. A teaching challenge was created that required faculty members to incorporate a “new-to-you” innovative teaching method in a class, course, or experiential activity. The method was linked to at least 1 of 7 evidence-based principles for effective teaching. Faculty members were exposed to colleagues' teaching strategies via brief voluntary presentations at department meetings.
Assessment. A post-challenge survey provided assessment data about the challenge. Responses to a baseline survey provided additional information about what faculty members were already doing (52% response rate). Eighty-one percent of faculty respondents completed the challenge. A wide array of new strategies (13 categories such as flipped classrooms and social media) was implemented and 75% included the use of technology. Nearly all respondents (96%) thought that participation in the challenge was worth the effort and planned to participate again the following year. All faculty members intended to continue using their new strategy and 56% planned additional modifications with future implementations. The challenge demonstrated how multiple goals of curricular improvement, faculty development, and student-centered instruction could be achieved together.
Conclusion. The teaching challenge motivated most of the faculty members to try something new to them. Links between evidence-based principles and day-to-day activities were strengthened. The new-to-you design placed the challenge within reach of faculty members regardless of their background, subject, or experience.
faculty development; teaching innovation; reflective teaching challenge; faculty survey
The objective structured teaching exercise (OSTE) is a high-fidelity training method for advancing the teaching and interpersonal communication skills of faculty members and preceptors. This paper is a primer for implementation of OSTEs as part of a comprehensive faculty development program. This primer addresses teaching and precepting skills that can be most effectively enhanced and assessed by the OSTE method. Development of case scenarios, recruitment and training of standardized students, OSTE session implementation processes, and OSTE evaluation methods are discussed. The experience of the authors as well as recommendations from a review of the literature and discussions with educators with OSTE experience are included.
faculty development; standardized student; professional competence
Objective. To assess the outcomes from an 11-year nontraditional professional development activity implemented by female faculty members at several colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Design. Within the context of an online fantasy football league, faculty members practiced community-based faculty development strategies, including peer mentoring, skills development, constructive feedback and other supportive behaviors.
Assessment. Data were extracted from curriculum vitae to characterize the academic progress of participants and to quantify scholarly work collaborations among league members. Analyses were limited to members who had participated in the league for 10 or more consecutive years. Seventy-one collaborative scholarly works occurred among team managers, including presentation of 20 posters and 2 oral presentations at national or international meetings, publication of 29 peer-reviewed articles and 15 book chapters, and funding of 5 research projects.
Conclusion. Social media platforms can foster nontraditional faculty development and mentoring by enhancing connectivity between pharmacy educators who share similar interests.
mentor; inservice training; faculty development; pharmacy faculty; social media
Objective. To design, implement, and evaluate a faculty development program intended to orient nonpharmacist faculty members to pharmacy practice.
Design. A multifaceted program was implemented in 2012 that included 4 shadowing experiences in which faculty members visited acute care, ambulatory care, hospital, and community pharmacy settings under the guidance of licensed preceptors. Itineraries for each visit were based on objective lists of anticipated practice experiences that define the role of the pharmacist in each setting.
Assessment. The 4 shadowing experiences culminated with reflection and completion of a survey to assess the impact of the program. All of the faculty participants agreed that the experience improved their conceptual understanding of contemporary pharmacy practice and the role of the pharmacist in the healthcare setting. The experience also improved faculty comfort with creating practice-relevant classroom activities.
Conclusions. A shadowing experience is an effective way of orienting nonpharmacist faculty members to the practice of pharmacy. This program inspired the creation of an experience to introduce pharmacy practice faculty to pharmaceutical science faculty research initiatives.
faculty development; pharmacy practice; pharmaceutical science; orientation
Objectives. To determine the number of interventions made by pharmacy students at an urban family medicine clinic and the acceptance rate of these recommendations by the healthcare providers. The secondary objective was to investigate the cost avoidance value of the interventions.
Methods. A prospective, unblinded study was conducted to determine the number and cost avoidance value of clinical interventions made by pharmacy students completing advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) in an urban family medicine clinic.
Results. Eighteen students completed this experience in the 8 months studied. Of the 718 interventions performed, 77% were accepted by physicians, including 58% of the 200 interventions that required immediate action. Projected avoidance was estimated at $61,855.
Conclusion. The clinical interventions by pharmacy students were generally well received by healthcare providers and resulted in significant cost savings. Pharmacy students can play an important role in a family medicine clinic.
pharmacy students; clinical interventions; family medicine; advanced pharmacy practice experience
Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs.
Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared.
Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size.
Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking.
experiential education; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; acute care; general medicine; ambulatory care; community pharmacy; health systems; qualitative research
Objective. To describe the education, training, and academic experiences of newly hired faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy during the 2012-2013 academic year.
Methods. A survey regarding education, training, and academic experiences was conducted of all first-time faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy hired during the 2012-2013 academic year.
Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members accounted for the majority (68.2%) of new hires. Ambulatory care was the most common pharmacy specialty position (29.8%). Most new faculty members had a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) as their terminal degree (74.8%), and 88.3% of pharmacy practice faculty members completed a residency. Of new faculty members who responded to the survey, 102 (67.5%) had at least 3 prior academic teaching, precepting, or research experiences.
Conclusion. New faculty members were hired most frequently for clinical faculty positions at the assistant professor level and most frequently in the specialty of ambulatory care. Prior academic experience included precepting pharmacy students, facilitating small discussions, and guest lecturing.
faculty member; pharmacy education; training; hiring; survey
Objective. To determine if the addition of weekly quizzes or reducing the number of faculty members teaching improved third-year (P3) pharmacy students’ final grades in a clinical pharmacokinetics course.
Design. Four sections of a pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics course were divided according to the number of faculty members teaching the course and the administration of weekly quizzes. Two sections were taught by 6 faculty members and 2 were taught by 3 faculty members. Also, 1 section in each group received weekly quizzes, creating a 2-by-2 design.
Assessment. The performance of the 201 P3 students enrolled in the course was assessed by comparing the average of 3 examination grades while excluding quiz grades. The mean final grade of classes in which quizzes were not administered was lower than that for classes in which quizzes were administered (p=0.019). The mean final grade in classes taught by 3 faculty members vs 6 faculty members was higher, but not significantly. A positive significant correlation existed between performance in a prerequisite biopharmaceutics class and this advanced class.
Conclusion. Making minor modifications to the delivery of a course, such as number of quizzes administered and number of faculty members teaching the course, had a positive impact on student performance. Grades in a prerequisite course may enable earlier identification of students at risk of poor performance in advanced courses.
assessment; pedagogy; pharmacokinetics
Objective. To describe the planning, implementation, and outcomes of an interprofessional education clinical laboratory facilitated through human patient simulation.
Design. An interprofessional education clinical laboratory was developed with a patient-care scenario of acute exacerbation of heart failure that incorporated the use of a high-fidelity patient simulator. Pharmacy and nursing students assumed clinical roles in this realistic scenario and collaborated to diagnose and treat the patient.
Assessment. Student attitudes toward and readiness to participate in interprofessional education improved following participation in the laboratory. Students reported that the greatest benefit of the experience was in their communication skills.
Conclusion. Students’ ability to participate in interprofessional education experiences and their attitudes toward them improved following participation in this curricular initiative. Further evaluation of the impact of interprofessional education on student learning outcomes and changes in practice is warranted.
interprofessional education; pharmacy students; nursing students; simulation
Objective. To measure changes in students’ knowledge and confidence scores after completing an elective clinical toxicology course in an accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program.
Design. Various active-learning techniques were used to create a learner-centered environment. Approximately two-thirds of the course used student-led presentations. Some of those not presenting were assigned to be evaluators, responsible for asking the presenter a question or writing quiz questions based on the presented material. Other learner-centered activities included weekly quizzes and discussions at the conclusion of each presented topic.
Assessment. A test instrument designed to measure students’ knowledge and associated level of confidence on each item was administered at the beginning and end of the course. Students’ knowledge and confidence scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest.
Conclusions. Students’ increased confidence and knowledge scores were well correlated after course completion, indicating students were better able to self-assess these areas. These findings suggest that confidence could be an additional measure of students' metacognitive skill development.
active learning; toxicology; elective; knowledge; confidence
Objective. To compare performance and preferences of students who were randomly allocated to classroom or online sections of an elective course on immunization.
Methods. Students were randomly assigned to either the classroom or online section. All course activities (lectures, quizzes, case discussions, vaccine administration, and final examination) were the same for both sections, except for the delivery of lecture material.
Assessment. Students were surveyed on their preferences at the beginning and end of the semester. At the end of the semester, the majority of students in the classroom group preferred classroom or blended delivery while the majority of students in the online group preferred blended or online delivery (p<0.01). Student performance was compared at the end of the semester. There was no significant difference for any of the grades in the course between the 2 sections.
Conclusion. There was no difference in student performance between the classroom and online sections, suggesting that online delivery is an effective way to teach students about immunization.
online learning; pedagogy; immunization
Mentoring of junior faculty members continues to be a widespread need in academic pharmacy in both new programs and established schools. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Joint Council Task Force on Mentoring was charged with gathering information from member colleges and schools and from the literature to determine best practices that could be shared with the academy. The task force summarized their findings regarding the needs and responsibilities for mentors and protégés at all faculty levels; what mentoring pieces are in existence, which need improvement, and which need to be created; and how effective mentoring is defined and could be measured. Based on these findings, the task force developed several recommendations as well as the PAIRS Faculty Mentorship Checklist. Academic institutions can benefit from the checklist whether they are planning to implement a faculty mentorship program or are interested in modifying existing programs.
mentor; faculty development
Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and faculty development books and relevant information found were reviewed in order to provide recommendations for best practices. Faculty development for teaching and learning comes in a variety of forms, from individuals charged to initiate activities to committees and centers. Faculty development has been effective in improving faculty perceptions on the value of teaching, increasing motivation and enthusiasm for teaching, increasing knowledge and behaviors, and disseminating skills. Several models exist that can be implemented to support faculty teaching development. Institutions need to make informed decisions about which plan could be most successfully implemented in their college or school.
faculty development; faculty learning community; teaching; learning
An awareness of how and where to search the education literature, and how to appraise it is essential to be a teacher scholar (an academic who takes a scholarly approach to teaching), to develop high quality education research, and to perform the scholarship of teaching and learning. Most pharmacy faculty scholars do not receive training in searching the education literature. Thus, a framework for searching the education literature is needed. The framework presented here on where and how to search for evidence in the education literature, referred to as the WHEEL for teaching, is meant to serve as a guide for faculty members in conducting comprehensive and exhaustive literature searches for the publication of scholarship of teaching and learning projects, educational research, or approaching one's teaching in a scholarly manner. Key resources to search and methods for searching the education literature are listed and described.
education literature; searching; research; teaching