Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common type of nosocomial pneumonia encountered in intensive care units. There are several aetiological agents which make treatment challenging. Improper antibiotic treatment of ventilated patients may lead to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens.
A prospective study was performed over a period of 20 months. Our study had two arms: the first, ‘Incidence and risk factors of VAP in a tertiary care hospital’ was the subject of an earlier publication; we therefore present the second investigative arm in this work. The aetiological agents of patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were identified by standard bacteriological method. The susceptibility pattern was evaluated by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) testing was performed by combination disc method, and metallo-beta lactamase (MBL) testing was performed by EDTA disk synergy test (EDS).
Late-onset VAP was associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, while early-onset VAP was commonly caused by members of Enterobacteriaceae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. 72.2 per cent of VAP patients had monomicrobial and 27.8 per cent had polymicrobial infection. Out of the 24 isolates obtained from patients with VAP, seven (29.2 per cent) were MDR pathogens. ESBL and MBL production was detected in 40 per cent and 20 per cent of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in our study. Around 50 per cent of isolates associated with late-onset VAP were MDR, while 22.2 per cent isolates obtained from patients with earlyonset VAP were MDR.
VAP is a nosocomial pneumonia that is common among ventilated patients. The aetiological agents vary from common organisms to MDR pathogens that are difficult to treat. A proper knowledge of MDR pathogens and early isolation followed by prevention of prolonged antibiotic therapy can reduce the mortality of late onset VAP.
Ventilator associated pneumonia; aetiology; drug resistance
The advent of newer technology and students’ growing familiarity with it has enabled information providers to introduce newer teaching methods such as audio podcasting in education. Inclusion of audio podcasts as a teaching aid for undergraduate medical or dental students could serve as a useful supplement to make reviewing more convenient and to enhance understanding and recall of the subject matter.
To assess the efficacy of podcasts as a supplementary teaching and learning aid for first-year dental students of Manipal.
To study students’ attitudes towards audio podcasts and perceived utility of podcasts.
This study was conducted at the Manipal College of Dental Sciences, India. The participants were first-year dental students. Live lecture classes were conducted for the students (n=80). The students were then divided randomly into two equal groups of 40 each. Group 1 students (n=40) had a study session followed by a multiple choice question (MCQ) test. This was followed by a podcasting session. Group 2 students had a study session along with an opportunity to listen to a podcast, followed by the test. Following this both groups completed a feedback form intended to assess their perceived utility and attitude towards podcasts. The performance score was analysed using SPSS and an independent sample t test was used to test the significance of differences in the mean score between the two groups.
Our analysis revealed a significant difference (p = 0.000) in the mean score between the two groups. Group 1 scored a mean of 7.95 out of 13 and group 2 scored a mean of 6.05 out of 13. Analysis of the feedback forms showed that 91.3 per cent of the students found the podcasts useful, as they could listen to lecture content repeatedly and at their own convenience. Sixty-three per cent of the students, however, felt that the absence of images and diagrams in podcasts was a disadvantage.
Students benefited when podcasts were used to supplement live lectures and textbook content. This was indicated by better student performance in the podcast group. Also, students showed a favourable attitude for podcasts being used as a supplementary teaching and learning aid.
Audio podcasts; dental students; student attitude
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by dematiaceous fungi. We report a case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi from a subtropical region of India that developed over the left foot of a 45-year-old male farmer and was provisionally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. The patient presented with irregular warty growths over the left foot, which had started one year previously, and has gradually progressed over a year to involve the lateral aspect of left leg. The diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was confirmed by histopathology and fungal culture.
Chromoblastomycosis; squamous cell carcinoma; Fonsecaea pedrosoi
Medical student attitudes towards communication skills are important for curriculum planners and teachers. Xavier University School of Medicine (XUSOM) is a private medical school admitting students mainly from the United States and Canada.
Attitude of students towards communication skills has not been previously studied in the institution. Hence the present study was carried out.
The study was carried out among the first, second, third and fourth semester undergraduate medical (MD) students at XUSOM, Aruba during July 2013 using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS). Respondents’ age, gender, nationality, occupation of parents, place of residence of family, semester of study were noted. The positive and negative attitude scale scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents (p<0.05).
Fifty-one of the seventy-three students (69.9 per cent) participated. The majority were between 20 to 25 years of age, of American nationality, from metro cities and had excellent or good self-perceived verbal and written communication skills. The mean positive attitude scale (PAS) score was 47.65 (maximum being 65) and the mean negative attitude scale (NAS) score was 31.06 (maximum 65). PAS score was significantly higher among respondents whose fathers were not in health related professions. NAS scores were significantly lower among the third and fourth semester respondents.
Students overall had a positive attitude towards communication skills but negative attitudes were also noted Based on results of the study and a review of literature we are planning to start communication skills learning in the institution right from the first semester and students will be provided opportunities for supervised practice during early clinical exposure, hospital observership and with standardised patients. The medical humanities module will be expanded and communication skills learning will continue during the clinical years with higher order skills being taught.
Attitudes; communication skills; education; medical school; medical students
Fatal road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of concern all over the world. The outcome of injuries sustained in an RTA depends on various factors including but not limited to: the location of the event, type of vehicle involved, nature of the roads, the time of accident, etc.
This study aims to investigate and evaluate prospectively the socio-demographic profile and pattern of injuries in victims of RTA in the rural area of the Ahmedanagar district of Maharashtra state.
This prospective study included all victims of RTA that presented to our emergency room from 1 June 2007 to 31 May 2009 and were either found dead on arrival or died during treatment. All the victims were autopsied at the post-mortem centre of Rural Medical College, Loni.
Ninety-eight RTA victims were studied during the period. The most commonly affected age group was 20-39 years. Men died in RTA more than women. Fatal RTA were more prevalent on the secondary road system (47.97 per cent) and especially involved pedestrian and two wheeler vehicle users. Large numbers (n=63, 64.28%) of victims either died on the scene or during transportation. Numbers of skeletal injuries (199) and internal organ injuries (202) exceeded the total number of victims (98) clearly indicating the multiplicity of injuries. The majority of RTA victims (n=46, 46.93%) died due to head injury. The study showed that most deaths in RTA, brought to a tertiary care rural hospital, took place either on the spot or within 24 hours of injury which is very alarming and highlights the need to take urgent steps to establish good pre-hospital care and provision of trauma services at site.
A computerised trauma registry is urgently needed to highlight risk factors, circumstances and chains of events leading to accidents. This would be extremely helpful in policy making and health management in India.
Road traffic accidents; injuries; vehicles; rural
Eclampsia manifests as seizures and is unique to the pregnant state. It remains an important cause of maternal mortality especially in resource-challenged countries that lack access to prenatal care.
The aim of our study was to compare maternal and foetal outcomes in mothers with eclampsia with the administration of either magnesium sulphate or phenytoin in a resource- challenged situation.
The work was conducted from January 2012 to December 2012. A total of 80 patients were assigned alternately to two groups – one group was treated with magnesium sulphate (Group-M; n=40), and the other treated with phenytoin (Group-P; n=40) (Figure 1). The magnesium sulphate was administered according to Pritchard’s regimen; phenytoin administered according to Ryan’s regimen. With either regimen, anticonvulsant therapy was continued for 24 hours postpartum or 24 hours after the last convulsion, whichever was later.
Fifty-four per cent of patients regained consciousness within eight hours of treatment onset in Group-P compared to 5.3 per cent in Group-M (p=0.0001, χ2=19.24). Seven patients in Group-P had recurrence of convulsions as compared to none of the 40 women assigned to Group-M (p=0.032, χ2=4.62). The incidence of Caesarean section was greater (62.5 per cent) in Group-M compared to Group-P (25 per cent; p=0.001, χ2= 9.96). No statistically significant differences were found in the foetal outcomes between the two groups.
Phenytoin use may be reconsidered in selective cases in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as it has been found simpler to use, has several benefits and also curtails treatment cost. Magnesium sulphate is substantially more effective than phenytoin with regard to recurrence of convulsions. Proper training in the management of eclampsia should be given to all health care workers to ensure appropriate management of eclamptic mothers. Thus, the treatment of this disease calls for more research especially in resource-challenged settings.
Eclampsia; magnesium sulphate; phenytoin; low and middle income countries; resource challenged; maternal mortality; comparison
Candida species are emerging as a potentially pathogenic fungus in patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases. The synergistic growth promoting association of Candida and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has raised increased concern for studying the various Candida spp . and its significance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients during current years.
This study was undertaken with the objective of discovering the prevalence of co-infection caused by different Candida species in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
A total of 75 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed by sputum Ziehl-Neelsen staining were included in the study. Candida co-infection was confirmed using the Kahanpaa et al. criteria. Candida species were identified using gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, morphology on cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and HiCrome Candida Agar.
Candida co-infection was observed in 30 (40%) of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Candida albicans was the most common isolate observed in 50% of the patients with co-infection, followed by C. tropicalis (20%) and C. glabrata (20%). Candida co-infection was found in 62.5% of female patients, while it was observed in only 29.4% of the male patients (P value 0.0133). Mean ± SD age of the patients with C. glabrata infection was 65.83 ± 3.19, while the mean ± SD age of the patients with other Candida infections was 43.25 ± 20.44 (P value 0.0138).
Many patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have co-infection with Candida spp. The prevalence of non-albicans Candida species is increasing and may be associated with inadequate response to anti-tubercular drugs. C. glabrata infection has a strong association with old age.
Candida co-infection; C. glabrata; prevalence; tuberculosis
During regular dissection classes, we came across tripled falx cerebelli in a male cadaver. The main (middle) falx cerebelli was large and was attached to the internal occipital crest. It contained the occipital sinus. There were two smaller folds (right and left), one on either side of the falx cerebelli. There were two aberrant venous sinuses; each one connecting the ipsilateral sigmoid and transverse sinuses with each other. The complex dural-venous variation reported here is seldom reported in the literature. Knowledge of such variation is important for neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists as these aberrant folds could cause haemorrhage during suboccipital approaches or may lead to erroneous interpretation during imaging of the posterior cranial fossa.
falx cerebelli; dura mater; venous sinus; meninges
Melioidosis is an emerging disease in India. Cases have also been reported from South East Asia, Australia and Japan. Major risk factors for melioidosis are diabetes mellitus, preexisting renal disease and thalassemia. Exposure to contaminated soil and water are also significant occupational hazards associated with the disease. A patient with diabetes of six years duration on regular medication presented with fever, generalised myalgia and headache for a week. Blood and bone marrow culture yielded Burkholderia pseudomallei. A Computed tomography (CT) study of the thorax also revealed multiple scattered nodules in both lungs. The patient was treated with imipenem and doxycycline. His condition improved gradually and he was advised oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and doxycycline for a period of three months and has been followed up regularly.
Melioidosis; Burkholderia pseudomallei; Diabetes mellitus; Bone marrow culture
Ovarian pregnancy is a rare event occurring in 1-3% of all ectopic pregnancies. Increased reporting might be due to the wider use of intra-uterine devices, ovulatory drugs and assisted reproductive techniques. Though ovarian pregnancy has a distinct pathology, it can be a source of clinical and intraoperative diagnostic difficulty. We report two cases of ovarian pregnancy – one primary and one secondary – that came to our notice within six months span. Unlike tubal ectopic and secondary ovarian pregnancies, patients with primary ovarian pregnancy are likely to experience success in future intra-uterine conception and negligible risk.
Ectopic pregnancy; ovarian pregnancy; assisted reproductive techniques, haemorrhagic ovarian cyst; corpus luteal cyst; pelvic inflammatory disease
This paper sought to determine the status of older Australians with regard to Bowel Cancer screening practices occurring outside of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program.
A random sample of N=25,511 urban Australians aged 50 to 74 years received a questionnaire via mail asking questions relating to bowel screening. N=8,762 (34.3%) returned a completed questionnaire.
Approximately 33% (N=2863) of respondents indicated they had undergone colonoscopy in the preceding five years and 21% (N=1840) had used a Faecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) in the preceding 12 months. Furthermore, 27% (N=497) of those who had completed an FOBT had also undergone colonoscopy.
A significant proportion of older Australians might be participating in bowel screening practices outside of the national program (NBCSP). Moreover, the proportion of individuals reporting use of both FOBT and endoscopic services is much higher than the positivity rate of FOBT. Large population FOBT screening programs, such as the NBCSP, that do not consider participation in screening external to the program may underestimate true population screening rates.
Colorectal Cancer Screening; Faecal Occult Blood Test; National Bowel Cancer Screening Program; Screening Participation
Interactive CaringTV® is a Finnish innovation that was developed by Laurea University of Applied Sciences in 2006. CaringTV was developed through action research during three research projects. The aim of interactive CaringTV is to support the health and well-being of elderly people living in their own homes.
The Safe Home project was based on action research, userdriven methods, and a case study. User-driven methods were applied in planning, implementing and evaluating the programme and eServices e.g. testing and evaluating peer support, including eConsultation as the methods for supporting clients´ coping with life in their own homes. Costeffectiveness and process modelling were studied through the case study.
The user-driven approach and the collected data formed the basis for the interactive programme. The online CaringTV programme included content to: support everyday life for the elderly, safety, and activities of daily living, support social relationships, participate in rehabilitation and physical exercises, manage self-care, and health issues. Active participation in the CaringTV programme provided functional ability and everyday coping as well as a meaningful activity in everyday life.
CaringTV is an interactive platform to support elderly in their everyday life and help them cope at home. User-driven methods enable participants´ active involvement in planning interactive and online programmes and eServices via CaringTV. The ultimate goal of the CaringTV is to support elderly´s health, wellbeing and interaction. CaringTV empowers elderly people to take responsibility for their own health care as part of healthy ageing.
Action research; CaringTV; elderly; empowerment; participation; user-driven methods
Driving is a complex task. Many older drivers are unaware of their obligation to inform authorities of conditions which may impact upon their driving safety.
This study sought to establish the adequacy of driving advice in electronic discharge summaries from an Australian stroke unit.
One month of in-patient electronic discharge summaries were reviewed. A predetermined list of items was used to assess each electronic discharge summary: age; gender; diagnosis; relevant co-morbidities; deficit at time of discharge; driving advice; length of stay; and discharge destination.
Of 41 participants, the mean age was 72 years. Twenty patients had a discharge diagnosis of stroke, nine of transient ischaemic attack, four of seizure and one of encephalitis. Of these, only eight discharge summaries included driving advice.
The documentation of driving advice in electronic discharge summaries is poor. This has important public health, ethical and medico-legal implications. Avenues for future research are explored.
Aged; automobile driving; patient discharge; seizure; stroke
Drug-related problems such as overuse of injectable drug products and antimicrobials, increased cost of drug therapy, polypharmacy, and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are prevalent in the healthcare settings of Nepal. To date, no new drug development processes or clinical trials have been conducted in Nepal, despite the fact that studies of real life situations are an essential tool for monitoring medicine use. Pharmacoepidemiology (PE) is an important area that evaluates the effects of drug use in large populations.
Data obtained from pharmacoepidemiological studies may highlight ways to reduce certain drug-related problems and provide reliable information on the safety profile of a drug. Moreover, clinicians and regulatory authorities may also use the data to make drug therapy decisions, drug regulation and policy development. Therefore, there is a great need to conduct appropriate pharmacoepidemiological studies that involve multiple regions and in various groups of the population of Nepal, to collect unbiased and reliable information on drug use.
Clinical decisions; drug regulation; Nepal; pharmacoepidemiology
We report a case of Salmonella paratyphi B meningitis in a 90 day-old male infant who was admitted with complaints of fever, vomiting and one episode of vacant stare. Clinically, the infant was found to be toxic and dull with a bulging anterior fontanelle. Subsequently, blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures demonstrated the presence of Salmonella Paratyphi B organism.
Salmonella Paratyphi B; meningitis; infant
In the clinical microbiology laboratory, classical culture and identification methods are rapidly giving way to molecular techniques with many benefits for clinicians and patients. Building on the discovery of the structure of DNA and the genetic code, four main scientific advances have been made which underpin these techniques (hybridisation probes, polymerase chain reaction, the observation that the microbial species signature can be read in the ribosomal genes and also in the proteins). Early discoveries have paved the way for new diagnostic methods, which are rapid, highly sensitive and specific. Automation has provided high throughput for large numbers of clinical specimens combined with reasonable cost. The benefits for the clinician and patient include confirmation of clinical diagnoses and information about antimicrobial susceptibility within hours compared to days for conventional methods. In resource-poor settings, molecular techniques and automated systems may seem unaffordable but new public-private partnerships, initiatives by the World Health Organization and new, innovative laboratory methods offer the promise of benefit for all.
Microbiology; molecular methods; resource-poor
Zygomycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection with a high mortality rate. It is known to cause invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts but it may produce only cutaneous/ subcutaneous infections in immunocompetent hosts. Treatment is difficult due to its fulminant course and lack of effective anti-fungal drugs. Here, we report a rare case of subcutaneous zygomycosis caused by Mucor hiemalis in an immunocompetent patient without any debilitating illness. The patient was successfully treated by aggressive surgical debridement and anti-fungal therapy.
Immunocompetent; Mucor hiemalis; subcutaneous zygomycosis
A 34-year-old Indian student who immigrated to Australia five years ago presented with a four-week history of neck pain. Physical examination revealed two firm fixed cervical lymph nodes in the anterior triangle and midline region which were tender on palpation and erythematous on inspection. Cording phenomenon was found on ZN staining of FNA sample and mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb ) PCR confirmed the diagnosis with incomplete resistance to isoniazid. Patient was treated with other three first line antituberculosis medications for nine months with an excellent outcome. Prednisolone was also used as adjunctive therapy and tapered during the course of treatment.
Scrofuloderma; Tuberculosis; Cording phenomenon
Enteric fever is common in tropical regions and is caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi (S typhi ). For diagnosis of enteric fever, the Widal test is the most widely used test after blood culture. In HIV infected individuals false positive and false negative Widal reactions are common. The result is variable titres and baseline titres that are unusual in this patient population.
This study was done to determine the baseline antibody titres for S typhi among HIV infected individuals.
Average baseline antibody titres against O and H antigens of S typhi were measured by standard Widal test in 200 HIV positive asymptomatic individuals, as well as 200 age and sex-matched controls. The results were compiled and statistically analysed.
A total of 84 (42%) of the cases had an H antibody titre of >1:20 and 105 (52.5%) had a titre of >1:20 against O antigen. This implies that positive titre of H and O antigen is significantly associated with HIV positive cases with P<0.001. Correlation of CD4 count with antibody titres shows that there is no significant association between CD4 counts and antibody titres against either H (P=0.634) or O antigen (P=0.765)
This study shows that HIV infected individuals had increased titres of antibodies against S typhi from the baseline. This indicates a need for evaluation of current cut-off values of diagnostic titres for this group. We also suggest that it is best to perform baseline titres against S t yphi for each patient at the time of diagnosis of HIV status, and to use this for future reference.
Salmonella typhi; Widal test; HIV/AIDS
Tuberculosis (TB) of the cervix is a rare disease, especially in developed countries. We presented a patient with primary TB of the cervix with no concurrent immune deficiency or HIV infections. The case clinically mimicked carcinoma of the cervix. Difficulties in diagnosis have been discussed. Given the recent increase in migration patterns including travel from TB endemic areas, an abnormal-looking cervix should be regarded with a degree of suspicion for TB.
Tuberculosis; cervix; female genital tract
Pregnancy is a time in which food choice is of particular importance. Trust in the food supply and those who regulate it is receiving greater acknowledgement because of the influence of trust on food choice. No prior investigation into pregnant women and food trust has been conducted.
This paper identifies factors that determine the nature and extent of pregnant women’s trust in food; sources of information which influence pregnant women’s food choices; and how trust impacts on pregnant women’s food choices.
In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 pregnant women; nine were pregnant with their first child and four were in their second or subsequent pregnancy.
Food choices of pregnant women were predominantly influenced by nutrition and perceived quality of food. Risktaking behaviour, such as the consumption of foods considered high risk during pregnancy, was common amongst participants. The sample was characterised by a dependence on expert information, limited reflexivity in relation to food safety, and contradictory practice such as risk-taking behaviours in regard to high risk foods were observed.
Further research is needed to confirm findings in this study. Research into consumption of high-risk foods and the information received from healthcare providers would be useful in creating a clearer understanding of whether provision of information is sufficient in communicating risks and promoting a healthy pregnancy.
Trust; Food choice; Pregnant; Women; Qualitative Research
Pre-cervical inflammation is rarely seen in a newborn. Those swellings that are seen are usually congenital, such as vascular malformations, teratoma, dermoid cyst, thyroglossal cyst, cystic hygroma (abnormal lymphatic tissue), and very rarely, inflammation secondary to infection. Being able to differentiate between each condition is important because the course, treatment and prognosis for each condition are different. This case of a neck abscess in a newborn is reported due to its resemblance to cystic hygroma and highlights the similarities between the two conditions.
Pre-cervical swelling; newborn
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. Hepatitis B & C accounts for most HCC occurrences. It is very rare to see a tumour thrombus extending into the right atrium of the heart as a result of the invasion of HCC. This complication has a very poor prognosis as mean survival time is about three to four months. We encountered such a rare case of hepatocellular carcinoma having extensive tumour thrombus extending into the right atrium without any cardio respiratory distress or clinical finding suggestive of cardiovascular involvement.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; tumour thrombus
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease affecting 15–25% of the general population.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and the relationship between insulin sensitivity and NAFLD in grade III high and very high cardiovascular additional risk essential hypertensive patients according to the circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm.
This four-year prospective study was conducted at the Department of Internal Medicine at Cluj-Napoca’s Diagnosis and Treatment Centre in Romania. The study included grade III essential hypertensive patients. Hypertensive patients were divided into four groups according to the diurnal index (DI) from ABPM monitoring: dipper (D), non-dipper (ND), reverse-dipper (RD), and extreme-dipper (ED). All hypertensive patients underwent 24 ABPM, blood tests and abdominal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of fatty liver disease.
Thirty-five hypertensive patients were included in the study, with 31.42% ND, 11.43% RD, 8.57% ED and 48.57% D. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly higher in ND, RD and ED when compared to D. When compared to the dipper group of hypertensive patients a statistically significantly higher level of plasma insulin was observed: in non-dipper [86.3±17.9pmol/l vs. 62.2±203pmol/l, p<0.05], in reverse dipper [88.3±18.6pmol/l vs. 62.2±20.3pmol/l] and in extreme-dippers [86.7±16.88pmol/l vs. 62.2±20.3 pmol/l, p<0.05].
The altered dipping status (ND, RD, ED) of hypertension associated with a higher insulin resistance could be the pathogenetic link between the NAFLD and altered blood pressure status. Altered BP status could be a marker of NAFLD in hypertensive patients.
Essential hypertension; primary non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; circadian blood pressure rhythm; insulin resistance
Non-sterile disposable gloves are used on large hospital wards, however their potential role as a vehicle for pathogen transmission has not been explored in this setting.
This study investigates glove use on a hospital orthopaedic ward to examine whether pathogen contamination occurs prior to contact with patients.
Glove samples were aseptically removed from boxes on a hospital orthopaedic ward on opening and days 3, 6 and 9 thereafter. Following elution of bacteria and viable counts, glove isolates were identified by standard techniques and 16s rDNA sequencing. Methicillin resistance of staphylococci was determined by disc diffusion, Epsilon tests and PCR. Gloves were inoculated to determine two isolate survival rates.
Total bacterial counts ranged from 0 to 9.6 x 103 cfu/glove. Environmental bacteria, particularly Bacillus species, were present on 31/38 (81.6%) of samples. Half (19/38) the samples were contaminated with skin commensals; coagulase negative staphylococci were predominant. Enterococcus faecalis , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas sp. or methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were recovered from 5/38 (13.2%) of samples. Significantly more skin commensals and pathogens were recovered from samples from days 3, 6, 9 than box-opening samples. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculated onto gloves remained viable for several days but counts decreased.
Health care workers introduced skin commensals and pathogenic bacteria into glove boxes indicating that unused, non-sterile gloves are potential pathogen transmission vehicles in hospitals. Findings highlight adherence to handwashing guidelines, common glove retrieval practice, and glove-box design as targets for decreasing bacteria transmission via gloves on hospital wards.
Bacteria; nosocomial pathogens; nosocomial infection; disposable gloves; contamination; methicillin resistance; hospital