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1.  Uniform standards and quality control of research publications in the field of Ayurveda 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):185-186.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131968
PMCID: PMC4078466  PMID: 24991064
2.  Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):187-192.
Background:
Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source.
Materials and Methods:
The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units.
Results:
Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds.
Conclusions:
The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131969
PMCID: PMC4078467  PMID: 24991065
Combretum albidum; fluorescence analysis; macroscopy; microscopy; physicochemical; phytochemical
3.  Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):193-198.
Background:
Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka.
Aim:
The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve.
Statistical Analysis:
The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test.
Results:
The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg.
Conclusion:
The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131970
PMCID: PMC4078468  PMID: 24991066
Antihyperglycaemic activity; blood glucose; diabetes mellitus; oral glucose tolerance test
4.  Physico-chemical study of Vaikrānta bhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):199-204.
Background:
Vaikrānta has very important place in Rasa śāstra and is placed under Mahārasa and Upratna group. It has been mentioned that vaikrānta can be used in the place of diamond, which is a very precious stone and whose use is beyond the limit of the common man. Vaikrānta possesses pharmacological and therapeutic properties similar to diamond, but still very few researchers have worked on it.
Aims and Objectives:
The main aim of the present study is to analyze vaikrānta bhasma by employing various organoleptic methods mentioned in Ayurvedic science along with analysis as per tools available today.
Settings and Design:
In the present study, vaikrānta bhasma was prepared according to method mentioned in Rasa Ratna Samuccaya. Final product is prepared according to classical parameters described in Ayurvedic science.
Materials and Methods:
Ayurvedic scholars have described various parameters for the qualitative evaluation of vaikrānta bhasma, but all those are subjective in nature and cannot be evaluated numerically for reproducibility of the result. With this in mind, in the present study, tests as per Ayurvedic science and analytical parameters such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry were adopted to analyze the final product.
Results and Conclusions:
Data suggests that vaikrānta bhasma is a multi-mineral compound, which contains iron and silica as major constituents and others are present as trace elements. The data obtained in this study suggest that quality specifications for vaikrānta bhasma can be developed using tests described in Ayurvedic science along with analytical tools available today.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131971
PMCID: PMC4078469  PMID: 24991067
Analysis; physico-chemical; Vaikranta bhasma
5.  Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):205-211.
Background:
It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride.
Aims:
To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing.
Results:
Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months.
Conclusion:
Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131973
PMCID: PMC4078470  PMID: 24991068
Lemongrass essential oil gel; local drug delivery; nonsurgical periodontal therapy; periodontitis; phytoscience
6.  Antibacterial activities of Origanum vulgare alone and in combination with different antimicrobials against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):212-216.
Background:
Typhoid fever continues to remain a major public health problem especially in the areas where there is problem of sanitation and hygiene. The emergence of multidrug resistance of Salmonella typhi, the bacteria responsible for Typhoid to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole has further complicated the treatment and management of enteric fever. One strategy for the treatment of the multidrug resistant bacteria is to use herbs in combination with conventional drugs. The present study was done to find out the interaction effect of phenolic, nonphenolic fractions, and volatile oil of Origanum vulgare with ciprofloxacin.
Materials and Methods:
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by microdilution method for individual phytoconstituents and in combination with ciprofloxacin was compared for clinically isolated bacteria from patients infected with S. typhi. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) were also calculated.
Results:
The MIC declined to a significant level indicating synergistic relationship between ciprofloxacin and phenolic, nonphenolic fractions and volatile oil in vitro. The FICI exhibits synergistic effect for all the three samples while indifferent and antagonistic for samples and for phenolic and nonphenolic fractions.
Conclusions:
Present study shows that not only the formulation using O. vulgare and ciprofloxacin can overcome multidrug resistance but also will reduce the toxic effects of ciprofloxacin.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131974
PMCID: PMC4078471  PMID: 24991069
Antimicrobial resistance; fractional inhibitory concentration; minimum inhibitory concentration; multidrug resistance; Salmonella typhi
7.  Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):217-221.
Context:
Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented.
Aims:
The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh.
Settings and Design:
The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healers, still continuing their traditional medicinal practices.
Materials and Methods:
Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method.
Results:
The Nag clan healers were observed to use 28 different plant species distributed into 22 families for treatment of ailments such as fever, loss of appetite, male infertility, dysentery, lower abdominal pain during menstruation, jaundice, stomachache, burning sensations during urination, bodily pain and weak health.
Conclusions:
This is the first reported study of the traditional medicinal practices of Nag clan healers. Several of the plants can be validated in their uses on the basis of existing scientific literature. The medicinal plants used by the Nag healers warrant further scientific studies, for the plants are readily available and can form alternative medicinal sources instead of costlier biomedical drugs.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131975
PMCID: PMC4078472  PMID: 24991070
Bangladesh; ethnomedicine; Moulvibazar; Nag clan; Rai Ghatual
8.  Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) extract in laboratory animals 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):222-226.
Context:
Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) is a diffuse herb with prickly stem, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and one in the group of daśamūla (group of ten herbs) herbs commonly used drug in Ayurveda.
Aims:
In continuation of search for potent natural anti-inflammatory agents, the present research work was planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of S. xanthocarpum whole plant.
Settings and Design:
The ethanol extract was evaluated at dose 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg p.o. in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Using pharmacological screening models carrageenan induced rat paw edema, histamine induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Data obtained was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Dunnett test, P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.
Results:
Acute treatment didn’t show anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and histamine induced paw edema. However, administration of 100 mg/kg p.o for 7 day reduced the granuloma formation in cotton pellet granuloma model.
Conclusions:
Present results support the traditional use of plant for anti-inflammatory activity. In brief, the results provide scientific pharmacological basis for the therapeutic use of S. xanthocarpum.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131976
PMCID: PMC4078473  PMID: 24991071
Anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; cotton pellet granuloma; histamine; Solanum xanthocarpum
9.  Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Dichrostachys Cinerea W and Arn leaves by a thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):227-233.
Background:
The leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea are used as laxative, diuretic, painkiller. It is also used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, boils, oedema, gout, veneral diseases and nasopharyngeal affections, etc.
Materials and Methods:
The Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves were performed by standard chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) by using various solvent systems, and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC). Two compounds were isolated by column chromatography and one of the compounds was identified by various spectral studies.
Result:
Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves showed the presence of Carbohydrates, proteins, Glycosides, Saponins, Tannins, Aminoacids and Terpenoids. The TLC and HPTLC fingerprint of ethanolic extract were studied and various fractions were isolated by column chromatography and one of the fraction contain β-amyrin glucoside which was confirmed by Infra Red[IR] Spectroscopy, 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), C-13 NMR and Mass spectroscopic (MS) studies.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131978
PMCID: PMC4078474  PMID: 24991072
Column chromatography; Dichrostachys cinerea; high performance thin layer chromatography; leaves extract; phytochemical evaluation
10.  Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):234-240.
Background:
Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae) commonly known in Hindi as “Dāruhaldi” and “Citra,” is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya region. The plant is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as an antibacterial, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal and anticancer and it is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic infections. Its root, stem and leaves also find their use in treatment of various ailments and hence is used extensively in Ayurveda.
Materials and Methods:
Samples of the whole plants of B. aristata were collected and identified. Hand and microtome sections were taken, stained and mounted and the cell content and cell wall structure were studied according to the method described by Kay and Johansen. Representative sketches were made with the help of camera Lucida. Methods for determining the quantitative values were the same as described elsewhere. For fluorescence analysis, the powder of the root, stem and leaf were examined under ultraviolet light. Total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash values and water- and alcohol-soluble extractives were determined.
Results:
The detailed investigations carried on the pharmacognosy of the root; stem and leaf of B. aristata have brought out some salient diagnostic features, which allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. The determination of quantitative values, fluorescence analysis and the use of lycopodium spore analysis has specifically contributed to this differentiation.
Conclusion:
From the foregoing observation on the pharmacognosy of root, stem and leaf of B. aristata DC, the salient diagnostic characters of three parts have been presented, which can allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131981
PMCID: PMC4078475  PMID: 24991073
Berberis aristata; fluorescence analysis; macroscopic characters; microscopic characters; physico-chemical properties
11.  Study of wound healing activity of Tectona grandis Linn. leaf extract on rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):241-244.
Aims:
The aim of the study is to determine the wound healing activity of Tectona grandis (TG) Linn. leaf extract on rats.
Materials and Methods:
Healthy albino rats (150-200 g) of either sex were taken for excision and incision wound model. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals in each group. For Group simple ointment served as control. The Groups 2 and 3 had 5 and 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and Group 4 soframycin ointment served as standard. In excision wound percentage of wound contraction was assessed, whereas in incision wound tensile strength was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by t-test.
Results:
In excision wound model, 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed a reduction in wound area 8th day onwards. Reduction in wound area was very significant (P < 0.01) as compared to control. Whereas 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and standard showed a reduction in wound area fourth day onwards, which was highly significant (P < 0.001) as compared to control. In incision wound model, animals treated with 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in tensile strength as compare to control. However, animals treated with 10% ointment of TG leaf extract showed very significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. However, animals treated with soframycin showed highly significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control.
Conclusions:
TG leaf extract showed significant wound healing activity.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131984
PMCID: PMC4078476  PMID: 24991074
Excision wound; hydro-alcoholic leaf extract; incision; Tectona grandis Linn; wound healing
12.  Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):245-249.
Background:
The fruit decoction of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd. is used toward increase sterility in woman intended birth control in some parts of Rajasthan, India. This plant is widely used in Turkish medicines as a potent sedative. One to two inches of the fresh stem bark of this species are chewed with 1-2 peppers, and the sap swallowed once a day for 5 days in the treatment of cough. Standardization is one of the challenges in herbal medicine. It is essential to evaluate the herbal plants scientifically and proper documentation should be made to know their medicinal properties.
Materials and Methods:
Leaf samples of Z. xylopyrus were studied as recommended by World Health Organization for morphological, microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical, powder characteristics and other methods for standardization.
Results:
Morphologically the leaves are obovate or orbicular in shape, pinnate venation having aromatic odour and pungent taste. Microscopically leaves showed the presence of ground tissue, vascular strand, xylem and phloem. The crystals are mostly rosette type. Microscopic examination of powder showed the presence of stomata, covering trichomes, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, epidermal cells and vascular strands. Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and sterol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids in it. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value extractive values were also determined and results showed that water soluble extractive value to be higher than alcohol soluble extractive value.
Conclusion:
Results may be helpful for further confirmation of selected species and in future these characters may be compared with the new batch of the same plant materials.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131986
PMCID: PMC4078477  PMID: 24991075
Macroscopy; microscopy; Pharmacognosy; powder microscopy; Ziziphus xylopyrus
13.  Post-surgical management of pontine hemorrhage with Ayurvedic treatment 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):250-252.
A female aged 30 years, consulted the Govt. Ayurveda Hospital, Perinthalmanna with complaints of left side of the body totally paralysed along with severe shivering of the right hand and head and the patient was bedridden for 1½ years. She was diagnosed earlier with spontaneous pontine hematoma (on 10th Nov 2007) and had undergone midline sub occipital craniectomy (on 13th Nov 2007) as an emergency treatment. She developed neurotrophic ulcer in the right eye with lagophthalmos post-surgery. The patient showed no improvement to treatment but further developed stromal abscess and hence paramedian tarsorraphy (4th Jan 2008) was done. The deficits in the right eye led to diminution of vision of that eye after Allopathy treatment. The patient sought Ayurvedic treatment for a better prognosis. The patient was under Ayurvedic treatment from 5th Mar 2009 to 24th Nov 2009. During that period Ayurvedic treatment such as abhyaṅga (oil massage), patra poṭṭalī sveda (use of poultices) and mṛdu virecana (purgation) was also done. After a period of 8 months of internal medication and treatment, the shivering of the right hand and head resolved. She could move the left leg and left hand and started walking without support. There was gradual loss of vision during the course of Ayurvedic treatment. At present, the patient is able to move around and do household works on her own.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131988
PMCID: PMC4078478  PMID: 24991076
Ayurveda; case report; pontine haemorrhage
14.  Significance of gingers (Zingiberaceae) in Indian System of Medicine - Ayurveda: An overview 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):253-261.
Background:
Family Zingiberaceae consists of the large number of medicinal plants and is well-known for its use in ethnomedicine and play a major role in Indian System of Medicine, Ayurveda.
Objective:
The aim of this study is the documentation of Zingiberaceous plants used in Ayurveda, adding information to the systematics, vernacular names and chemistry with experimental data.
Materials and Methods:
The live plants were collected from wild and successfully conserved at Herbal Garden of Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal. The experimental data of each species has been collected from the various sources. The photographs were taken and all relevant data documented.
Results and Conclusion:
A total of 13 species belonging to 7 genera of Zingiberaceae were documented. The work will be useful to students and researchers as it provides an easy access to Zingiberaceous plants used in Ayurveda.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131989
PMCID: PMC4078479  PMID: 24991077
Ayurveda; Curcuma; Gingers; Indian System of Medicine; Zingiberaceae
15.  Clinical diagnosis in Ayurveda 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):262.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131992
PMCID: PMC4078480  PMID: 24991078
16.  Papaya and dengue 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):263.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131993
PMCID: PMC4078481  PMID: 24991079
17.  Papaya, dengue fever and Ayurveda 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):131-133.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122994
PMCID: PMC3902531  PMID: 24501439
18.  Clinical evaluation of Vṛṣya effect of Pūga Khaṇḍa on sexual health and seminal parameters 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):134-138.
Background:
Due to changes in life-style, the human beings are losing their Vṛṣyatā (virility). Bio-medicine hasn’t been able to address this challenge. Hence, we see that many people seek the help of herbal medicines to get relief. In view of the above, it becomes necessary to provide potent formulations to address this ailment.
Objectives:
The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Pūga Khaṇḍa on seminal parameters and sexual health.
Materials and Methods:
Pūga Khaṇḍa has been mentioned as Vṛṣya (aphrodisiac) in the 30th chapter of Bhaiśajyaratnāvalī. A simple-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study comparing this Pūga Khaṇḍa preparation with a placebo was conducted in 52 patients attending O.P.D. of Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana of Muniyal Institute of Ayurveda Medical Sciences, Manipal. An elaborative case taking Proforma was specially designed for this purpose incorporating all aspects of the disease in the Ayurvedic parlance. Both groups received either Pūga Khaṇḍa or placebo, in empty stomach in the early morning with water, as per the randomisation plan for a period of 45 days. Patients were followed-upto 4 weeks, 43 patients (84%) had completed the trial and no adverse effects were reported. The assessment was done on the basis of changes in seminal parameters and sexual health parameters.
Results:
A varying degree of improvement was observed in sexual parameters viz. duration of coitus (P<0.001), frequency of coitus (P<0.01), Sexual desire (P<0.05), penile erection (P<0.01), A significant improvement was seen in duration of coitus (P< 0.001) in the group treated by Pūga Khaṇḍa.
Conclusion:
The trial drug Pūga Khaṇḍa was superior to placebo in reducing the mean sign and symptom score of seminal parameters and sexual health.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122995
PMCID: PMC3902532  PMID: 24501440
Klaibya; Puga Khanda; seminal parameters; sexual parameters; Vrushya
19.  Effect of Prunus domestica L. (mirabelle) on learning and memory in mice 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):139-143.
Background:
Plums have been known to have various pharmacological activities.
Aims:
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of plum, using passive avoidance task.
Settings and Design:
Mice were divided into four groups (n = 7 each) one control and three plum (75, 100, 150 mg/kg) groups.
Materials and Methods:
The control group received saline and plum groups received the extract by oral gavage for 7 days. The number of trials to acquisition, step through latency (STLr) in the retention test and the time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) during the retention test were measured.
Statistical Analysis:
Differences between groups were tested by one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test.
Results:
A significant difference was found in the number of trials to acquisition between the groups. The results also indicated in the retention test, administration of 75 and 100 mg/kg plum caused an increased STLr (compared with the untreated control group). The results also showed that the total time spent in TDC by the animals of the extract groups was lower than that of the control group.
Conclusions:
Hydro-alcoholic extract of plum has a beneficial effect on learning and memory in passive avoidance task. It can be concluded that its antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activities may be involved in the obtained effects.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122996
PMCID: PMC3902533  PMID: 24501441
Learning; memory; mice; Prunus domestica L
20.  Ethnomedicinal plants of the Bauri tribal community of Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):144-149.
Context:
Bangladesh reportedly has more than 100 tribal communities; however, documentation of their medicinal practices is markedly absent.
Aim:
The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the little known Bauri tribe of Bangladesh, whose tribal medicinal practices are yet to be documented.
Settings and Design:
The survey was carried out among the Bauri tribal community of Purbo Tila village in Moulvibazar District. The community is believed to be the only Bauri community in the country and had four tribal healers who continue their traditional medicinal practices.
Materials and Methods:
Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method where the healers took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants. Here they identified the plants and described their uses.
Results:
The Bauri healers were observed to use 40 different plant species and one bird species for treatment of ailments such as fever, respiratory tract disorders, pain, gastrointestinal disorders, eye problems like cataract and conjunctivitis, jaundice, abscess, cardiovascular disorders, urinary problems, paralysis, dog bite, snake bite, helminthiasis, lesions on the tongue or lips and piles. Leaves were the major plant part used and constituted 38.3% of total uses followed by fruits at 14.9%.
Conclusions:
A review of the relevant scientific literature showed that a number of medicinal plants used by the Bauri healers possess pharmacological activities, which were in line with the traditional uses, thus validating their use by the Bauri tribe.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122997
PMCID: PMC3902534  PMID: 24501442
Bauri; ethnomedicine; Moulvibazar
21.  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):150-155.
Background:
Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition).
Aims:
The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents.
Settings and Design:
The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents.
Materials and Methods:
Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test.
Results:
The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used.
Conclusions:
The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122998
PMCID: PMC3902535  PMID: 24501443
Analgesic; anti-inflammatory; Grewia asiatica; root bark
22.  Anti-scorpion venom activity of Andrographis paniculata: A combined and comparative study with anti-scorpion serum in mice 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):156-160.
Objectives:
The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-scorpion venom (ASV) property of Andrographis paniculata in comparison with anti-redscorpion venom serum and this study aimed to determine its combined effect with anti-redscorpion venom serum.
Materials and Methods:
Ethanolic extract of the plant AP was obtained using soxhlet apparatus. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used. Lyophilized venom sample of Mesobuthus tamulus and Lyophilized monovalent enzyme refined immunoglobulin anti-scorpion venom serum (ASV) was used. Using lethal dose of scorpion venom (25.12μg/g), the venom neutralizing ability of plant extract (1 g/kg) and ASV individually as well as in combination was studied using in vivo and in vitro methods. Mean survival time, protection fold and percentage survival of animals over the period of 24 h were the parameters used.
Statistical Analysis:
Results were analyzed using Student's t-test.
Results:
Ethanolic extract of AP (1 g/kg) showed some protective effect against scorpion venom. ASV was found more effective than plant extract. But, when plant extract and ASV were used in combination, potency of ASV was found to be increased both in vivo and in vitro.
Conclusions:
Present study demonstrates that, both plant extract and ASV have their own scorpion venom neutralising ability in vivo and in vitro, but their combination is most effective in venom neutralizing ability.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122999
PMCID: PMC3902536  PMID: 24501444
Andrographis paniculata; anti-scorpion venom; lethal dose; Mesobuthus tamulus
23.  An integrated approach in the treatment of varicose ulcer 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):161-164.
Venous ulcers (stasis ulcers, varicose ulcers) are the wounds occurring due to inappropriate functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs. It is one of the most serious chronic venous insufficiency complications. The overall incidence rate is 0.76% in men and 1.42% in women. When a venous valve gets damaged, it prevents the backflow of blood, which causes pressure in the veins that leads to hypertension and, in turn, venous ulcers. These are mostly along the medial distal leg, which is often very painful, can bleed, and get infected. Treating varicose ulcers is a difficult task to the physician and a nightmare to the suffering patients, though a good number of the treatment principles are mentioned and practiced in allied sciences. In Ayurveda, this condition is considered as duṣṭa vraṇa. It can be managed with the specific s’odhana therapy. So, the same treatment protocol was used to treat the case discussed here, i.e. with Nitya virecana and by Basti karma. The wound was successfully treated and, therefore, is discussed in detail.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123000
PMCID: PMC3902537  PMID: 24501445
Basti karma; Dustha vrana; Nitya virechana; varicose ulcer
24.  A review on phyto-pharmacological potentials of Euphorbia thymifolia L. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):165-172.
Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a small branched, hispidly pubescent, prostate annual herb, commonly known as laghududhika or choti-dudhi. The leaves, seeds and fresh juice of whole plant are used in worm infections, as stimulant, astringent. It is also used in bowel complaints and in many more diseases therapeutically. The present work is an extensive review of published literature concerning phytochemical and pharmacological potential of E. thymifolia. Data was searched and designed using various review modalities manually and using electronic search engines with reference to all aspects of E. thymifolia and was arranged chronologically. Complete information of the plant has been collected from the various books and journals since the last 32 years, internet databases, etc., were searched. Compiled data reflects the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the plant. This will be helpful for researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be explored and in scientific use of the plant for its wide variety of traditional therapeutic claims and also as to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional activities.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123001
PMCID: PMC3902538  PMID: 24501446
Anti-herpes simplex virus; antihyperglycemic; anti-inflammatory; antinociceptive; phytochemical
25.  Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):173-177.
Background:
In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens.
Materials and Methods:
Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification.
Results:
Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens.
Conclusion:
Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123002
PMCID: PMC3902539  PMID: 24501447
16S rRNA; herbs; injury; traditional medicine; Tridax; wound healing

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