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1.  Anencephalus in Scotland 1961-72. 
Data relating to the incidence of anencephalus for the 12-year period 1961-72 were abstracted from the Statistical Reviews of the Registrar General for Scotland. It was shown that considerable geographical variation is still apparent with the highlands having, in general, the lower incidences. In comparison with the earlier study of Edwards (1958), there were some changes: the incidence in the areas to the west had increased and that in those to the east decreased. During the 12-year period there was an overall decline in the incidence of the lesion; this was most marked in births to women under 20 years, and to those of social classes III, IV, and V. The decline was least apparent for births to women of high social class and the unmarried. It was shown that there was little seasonal variation in the time of delivery, but that even when the trend had been taken into account the yearly fluctuation was significantly different from that expected, with an excess of cases in 1961 and 1971.
PMCID: PMC478951  PMID: 953377
3.  An investigation of space and space-time clustering in a large sample of infants with neural tube defects born in Cardiff. 
Altogether 406 infants with neural tube defects born in Cardiff between 1956-71 were investigated for evidence of space-time clustering and 100 similarly affected infants, together with matched controls born in Cardiff between 1964-66 were investigated for evidence of spatial clustering. No evidence of excessive prevalence in either dimension was observed.
PMCID: PMC478915  PMID: 1104033
4.  Seasonal variation in anencephalus in Canada. 
A study of the monthly numbers of stillbirths and of deaths due to anencephalus in Canada from 1954 to 1962 showed a weak tendency to a winter excess of affected births. The seasonal trend was more marked in the Prarie provinces and in Quebec than elsewhere; the maximum rate of anencephalus occurrence was in October to December in the Prairies and in British Columbia, and in January to March in other regions.
PMCID: PMC478882  PMID: 1137766
8.  Neural tube defects in a country town 
Eighteen infants with neural tube defects occurring in 979 births over five years in a small Wiltshire town were investigated for evidence of spatial epidemicity. Applying a method not used previously in the study of these defects, clustering was confirmed, a critical distance between cases of up to 100 metres giving a highly significant result (P = 0·001), and with one exception the observed number of pairs significantly exceeds the expected number (P < 0·01) even up to 1,000 metres.
PMCID: PMC478858  PMID: 4606840
11.  Incidence and variables contributing to onset of cigarette smoking among secondary school children and medical students in Lagos, Nigeria. 
This paper reports the findings of a survey of smoking habits among secondary schoolchildren and medical students in Lagos, Nigeria. Altogether 40% of boys and 8.4% of girls at secondary school, and 72.4% of men and 22.2% of women at medical school were found to smoke. While the smoking habit of the secondary schoolboys was influenced by the smoking habits of their parents and friends, the smoking habit of the secondary schoolgirls and female medical students was mainly influenced by that of their friends. This study provides a baseline against which future studies on smoking habits in developing African countries may be measured, and the results show that health education on cigarette smoking must start in primary and secondary schools.
PMCID: PMC478940  PMID: 949573
12.  Influence of some social and environmental factors on the nutrient intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren. 
Only children had significantly higher intakes of many nutrients and nutrients/1000 kcal than other children. A higher proportion of only children was found to be obese. There were no significant differences according to birthrank in intakes by children. There were more obese children among the fatherless than those with fathers, in particular among those whose mothers were widowed. However, this was not accounted for by the present dietary findings, since fatherless children had lower intakes of carbohydrate and added sugar. There were no differences in nutrient intake or intake/1000 kcal by mother's country of origin or her level of education, or by disposable income.
PMCID: PMC478900  PMID: 1182353
13.  Potato avoidance during pregnancy in women with a previous infant with either anencephaly and/or spina bifida. 
This investigation is a direct attempt to test Renwick's (1972) hypothesis that 95% of anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB) is preventable by the avoidance of potatoes during pregnancy. Although the numbers involved in the study are small, the investigation fails to support the concept that short-term avoidance of potatoes before conception and throughout pregnancy in women who have had a previous ASB infant reduces the recurrence risk. In the potato-free group, of 23 pregnancies which went to term two infants had ASB (8-7%); whereas in the non-potato-free group, of 56 which went to term two infants had ASB (3-6%). The recurrence risk in both groups was about 5%. The incidence of ASB in the groups shows no significant difference (P = 0-58) and in the potato-free group was not reduced by 95% as postulated by Renwick.
PMCID: PMC478899  PMID: 1102005
14.  The new chronic psychiatric population 
Data from the Camberwell Register are used to examine the accumulation of a new chronic population in three forms of psychiatric care—inpatient, day patient, and hostel care. For the period 1964-72, against the background of expanding psychiatric services, the number and characteristics of new long-stay patients in each form of care are analysed. The net accumulation of new long-stay inpatients stabilized after a few years; the population of long-stay day patients and residents in psychiatric hostels was still increasing. The epidemiological basis of the study allows the numbers to be expressed as rates per head of population.
PMCID: PMC478859  PMID: 4213460
15.  Anencephaly and potato blight in the Republic of Ireland 
National potato tuber blight scores in the Republic of Ireland for the years 1961-70 were ascertained and evaluated in relation to incidence of anencephalic births in the following years. No significant relationship between annual tuber blight scores and incidence of anencephaly one year later could be demonstrated. Examination of the records of a maternity hospital for the years before, during, and after the great midnineteenth century potato famine in Ireland failed to show any appreciable fluctuation in anencephaly/spina bifida incidence during this period.
PMCID: PMC478842  PMID: 4604097
17.  Trace elements in water and congenital malformations of the central nervous system in South Wales. 
The concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry on representative samples of tap-water collected from 48 local authority areas in South Wales. The associations between twelve trace elements and central nervous system (CNS) malformation rates for the 48 areas were examined. Significant correlations for four trace elements were observed. Of these, Al was positively correlated while for the remaining three-Ca, Ba, and Cu-negative associations were found. Regression analysis of the data suggested that the relationships between Ba and Cu with CNS malformation rates were improtant than those of Al and Ca.
PMCID: PMC478936  PMID: 949571
18.  Relationship between month of birth and month of death in the elderly. 
A special analysis of mortality data for England and Wales fof 1972 has been used to examine the relationship between month of birth and month of death. For persons 75 and over in eight subgroups (by sex and marital status) there was a consistent trend in deaths with an excess in the birth month and the following three months. This excess was of the order of only 1% of all deaths in the year but statistically significant for each subgroup. The method of analysis was adjusted for the nonsynchronous monthly variation in births and deaths, but a systematic error in recording the month of birth could not be excluded. A wide range of studies on the relationship between stress, morbidity, and mortality are briefly reviewed; it is suggested that in the elderly a birthday may in some subtle way influence the general morale of an individual. Further studies have been planned to test whether 'birthday stress' is a realistic explanation, or if a number of other hypotheses need to be invoked.
PMCID: PMC478908  PMID: 1191883
19.  A test for seasonality of events with a variable population at risk. 
A statistical significance test to detect seasonality of epidemiological events is described. The method is similar to that of Edwards, but makes it possible to allow for an arbitrary pattern of variation in the population risk, and also for the unequal lengths of time sectors of a cycyle of seasons (e.g., months of a year). From the test it is possible to estimate the amplitude of seasonal variation and the time at which the maximum occurs in a postulated simple harmonic fluctuation; the adequacy of the description of the data by a curve of this kind may be evaluated using a goodness-of-fit test. A numerical example of the calculations is given using some anencephalus data, and the results are compared with those of alternative tests.
PMCID: PMC478881  PMID: 1137765
20.  Sudden unexpected death in infants in the Oxford Record Linkage Area 
One-hundred-and-seventy infants resident in the Oxford Record Linkage Area and dying suddenly and unexpectedly in the five-year period 1966-70 were linked with the records concerning their delivery. For each of these cases three controls were chosen, matched for maternal age, parity, social class, legitimacy, and place and year of delivery. The files of general hospital admissions were scanned to identify admissions to the mothers during the pregnancy, and admissions to the infants, for both index cases and controls.
Significant associations were found with short gestation, low birthweight, slight growth retardation, twin delivery, `insult' during pregnancy, induction of labour, neonatal jaundice, congenital defects, subsequent hospital admission, and month of birth. There was no association with breast feeding but some evidence for contact with other cases during hospital admission.
PMCID: PMC478856  PMID: 4415983

Results 1-25 (1279)