Bouveret’s syndrome causes gastric outlet obstruction when a gallstone is impacted in the duodenum or stomach via a bilioenteric fistula. It is a rare condition that causes significant morbidity and mortality and often occurs in the elderly with significant comorbidities. Individual diagnostic and treatment strategies are required for optimal management and outcome. The purpose of this paper is to develop a surgical strategy for optimized individual treatment of Bouveret’s syndrome based on the available literature and motivated by our own experience.
Two cases of Bouveret’s syndrome are presented with individual management and restrictive surgical approaches tailored to the condition of the patients and intraoperative findings.
Improved diagnostics and restrictive individual surgical approaches have shown to lower the mortality rates of Bouveret’s syndrome. For optimized outcome of the individual patient: The medical and perioperative management and time of surgery are tailored to the condition of the patient. CT-scan is most often required to secure the diagnosis. The surgical approach includes enterolithotomy alone or in combination with simultaneous or subsequent cholecystectomy and fistula repair. Lower overall morbidity and mortality are in favor of restrictive surgical approaches. The surgical strategy is adapted to the intraoperative findings and to the risk for secondary complications vs. the age and comorbidities of the patient.
Diabetic peripheral arterial disease is the main cause of lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes. To summarize the technique and experiences and evaluate the clinical effects of blood vessel intervention operation on diabetic peripheral artery disease.
81 patients with diabetic peripheral artery disease from October 2007 to September 2011, 81 cases of the observation group were treated by balloon PTA. By adopting the Seldinger puncture technology, intubation was placed into a cobra catheter or a pig tail artery catheter and directed to the ipsilateral lower extremity artery. A guidewire was used to reach the lesion part of patients and a long balloon with a diameter of 4–6 mm was used to expand the artery with a pressure of 6–10 atm.
81 patients in the observation group received the PTA surgery. The technical succesful rate was 100%, no complication happened. The skin temperature increased after treatment. The blood supply improved significantly. The pulsation of the foot dorsal artery was strengthened. The numbness and pain symptoms were moderated significantly. We observed better results in the observation group in lower limb vessel diameter and foot ulceration healing. None of the patients received amputation surgery. Its short-term effects were satisfactory.
PTA is a feasible technique for diabetic peripheral artery disease. It has great clinical significance in treating diabetic peripheral arterial disease. Although its short-term effects is satisfactory, the long-term effects is necessary for follow up.
Diabetic; Peripheral artery disease; Angioplasty; Interventional operation
High-energy non-missile penetrating injuries (stab injuries) account for a small percentage of penetrating head injuries and they present a series of special features.
A 35-year-old man suffered orbito-frontal? and trans-cranial injuries after falling five meters from a terrace onto a rod iron fence. The removal of the metal rod was performed outside the operating room. The orbital roof was exposed and repaired through a bifrontal craniotomy and the frontal sinuses were cranialised. The orbital floor and zygoma were plated with micro-screws.
The patient recovered without significant complications, apart from a slight paresis of the right superior rectus; the ocular globe remained intact.
The positive outcome obtained in this very challenging case is attributable to the competency of the Neurotrauma Unit and to the use of a synergistic approach which involved the contribution of neurosurgeons, maxillo-facial surgeons, radiologists and anaesthesiologists.
Rod; Penetrating head injury; Orbital trauma; Cranial reconstruction
The cancellation of planned surgery harms patients, increases waiting times and wastes scarce health resources. Previous studies have evaluated interventions to reduce cancellations from medical and management perspectives; these have focused on cost, length of stay, improved efficiency, and reduced post-operative complications. In our case a hospital had experienced high cancellation rates and therefore redesigned their pathway for elective surgery to reduce cancelations. We studied how patients experienced interventions to reduce cancellations.
We conducted a comparative, qualitative case study by interviewing 8 patients who had experienced the redesigned pathway, and 8 patients who had experienced the original pathway. We performed a content analysis of the interviews using a theory-based coding scheme. Through a process of coding and condensing, we identified themes of patient experience.
We identified three common themes summarizing patients’ positive experiences with the effects of the interventions: the importance of being involved in scheduling time for surgery, individualized preparation before the hospital admission, and relationships with few clinicians during their hospital stay.
Patients appreciated the effects of interventions to reduce cancellations, because they increased their autonomy. Unanticipated consequences were that the telephone reminder created a personalized dialogue and centralization of surgical preparation and discharge processes improved continuity of care. Thus apart from improving surgical logistics, the pathway became more patient-centered.
Quality improvement; Surgery; Cancellations; Patient centered; Qualitative
Bilateral pneumothoraces after cosmetic breast surgery are rare and sporadically reported in the literature.
A 65-year-old female patient developed bilateral pneumothoraces after bilateral breast reduction surgery. Emergent chest tube thoracostomy was performed on both sides. The chest drains were removed on the fourth day (left side) and sixth day (right side), and the patient was discharged after 7 days of hospitalization without any further complications.
To our knowledge, the English-language literature contains no other reports of bilateral pneumothoraces after reduction mammoplasty.
Pneumothorax; Bilateral; Mammoplasty
Accurate and timely identification of patients in need of a relaparotomy is challenging since there are no readily available strongholds. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model to aid the decision-making process in whom to perform a relaparotomy.
Data from a randomized trial comparing surgical strategies for relaparotomy were used. Variables were selected based on previous reports and common clinical sense and screened in a univariable regression analysis to identify those associated with the need for relaparotomy. Variables with the strongest association were considered for the prediction model which was constructed after backward elimination in a multivariable regression analysis. The discriminatory capacity of the model was expressed with the area under the curve (AUC). A cut-off analysis was performed to illustrate the consequences in clinical practice.
One hundred and eighty-two patients were included; 46 were considered cases requiring a relaparotomy. A prediction model was build containing 6 variables. This final model had an AUC of 0.80 indicating good discriminatory capacity. However, acceptable sensitivity would require a low threshold for relaparotomy leading to an unacceptable rate of negative relaparotomies (63%). Therefore, the prediction model was incorporated in a decision rule were the interval until re-assessment and the use of Computed Tomography are related to the outcome of the model.
To construct a prediction model that will provide a definite answer whether or not to perform a relaparotomy seems a utopia. However, our prediction model can be used to stratify patients on their underlying risk and could guide further monitoring of patients with abdominal sepsis in order to identify patients with suspected ongoing peritonitis in a timely fashion.
Secondary peritonitis; Abdominal sepsis; Relaparotomy; On-demand; Prediction model; Decision rule
Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement is an established procedure for the treatment of hydrocephalus of diverse etiologies in children and adults. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst, which is potentially life threatening, is a rare complication and usually occurs during childhood. However, with increasing longevity following successful treatment, it can also occur in adults.
Here we describe a 22-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital because of diffuse abdominal distention. A VPS was placed 21 years earlier to treat hydrocephalus secondary to spina bifida. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a homogeneous low-density fluid collection adjacent to the VPS catheter tip, causing stomach obstruction. Thus a peritoneal pseudocyst around VPS was suspected and emergency laparotomy was performed. The large mass was localized in the left upper abdomen between the stomach and mesentery of the transverse colon, exactly at the omental bursa. The cystic mass was opened and 1500 ml of clear fluid was drained; the distal end of the VPS was repositioned outside the mass. Thus, an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst as a complication of VPS was diagnosed.
Gastroenterological surgeons should be aware of this possible complication, and this complication should be considered during differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen complaint.
Abdominal pseudocyst; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
Selective approach for sending cholecystectomy specimens for histopathology results in missing discrete pathologies such as premalignant benign lesions such as porcelain gallbladder, carcinoma-in-situ, and early carcinomas. To avoid such blunders therefore, every cholecystectomy specimen should be routinely examined histologically. Unfortunately, the practice of discarding gallbladder specimen is standard in most tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan including the primary investigators’ own institution. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility or otherwise of performing histopathology in every specimen of gallbladder.
This cohort study included 220 patients with gallstones for cholecystectomy. All cases with known secondaries from gallbladder, local invasion from other viscera, traumatic rupture of gallbladder, gross malignancy of gallbladder found during surgery was excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in majority of cases except in those cases where anatomical distortion and dense adhesions prevented laparoscopy. All gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathology, irrespective of their gross appearance.
Over a period of two years, 220 patients with symptomatic gallstones were admitted for cholecystectomy. Most of the patients were females (88%). Ninety two per cent patients presented with upper abdominal pain of varying duration. All specimens were sent for histopathology. Two hundred and three of the specimens showed evidence chronic cholecystitis, 7 acute cholecystitis with mucocele, 3 acute cholecystitis with empyema and one chronic cholecystitis associated with poly. Six gallbladders (2.8%) showed adenocarcinoma of varying differentiation along with cholelithiasis.
The histopathological spectrum of gallbladder is extremely variable. Incidental diagnosis of carcinoma gall bladder is not rare; if the protocol of routine histopathology of all gallbladder specimens is not followed, subclinical malignancies would fail to be identified with disastrous results. We strongly recommend routine histopathology of all cholecystectomy specimens.
Gallbladder malignancy; Cholelithiasis; Cholecystectomy
Many novel approaches to mandibular condyle fracture have been reported, but there is a relative lack of reports on the Risdon approach. In this study, the feasibility of the Risdon approach for condylar neck and subcondylar fractures of the mandible is demonstrated.
A review of patients with mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures was performed from March 2008 to June 2012. A total of 25 patients, 19 males and 6 females, had 14 condylar neck fractures and 11 subcondylar fractures.
All of the cases were reduced using the Risdon approach. For subcondylar fractures, reduction and fixation with plates was done under direct vision. For condylar neck fractures, reduction and fixation was done with the aid of a trochar in adults and a percutaneous threaded Kirschner wire in children. There were no malunions or nonunions revealed in follow-up care. Mild transient neuropraxia of the marginal mandibular nerve was seen in 4 patients, which was resolved within 1–2 months.
The Risdon approach is a technique for reducing the condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that is easy to perform and easy to learn. Its value in the reduction of mandibular condyle fractures should be emphasized.
Mandibular condyle; Mandibular injuries; Operative surgical procedure
The Belsey Mark IV operation has been used for the management of hiatal hernia for over 40 years, but with the introduction of laparoscopic techniques its role has become questionable. To determine the current role of this procedure we present a contemporary series of patients.
We reviewed fifteen consecutive patients, mean age of 63 years, who underwent a Belsey Mark IV fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux in the presence of a hiatal hernia in our Department from January 2005 to March 2011. Indications for the thoracic approach included paraesophageal hernias, recurrent hiatal hernias and previous upper abdominal surgery.
There was no operative mortality. Immediate postoperative morbidity included 1 case of bleeding, 1 case of pneumonia and 1 case of atrial fibrillation. The mean length of stay was 5.9 days. After a mean follow-up time of 49 months, all patients reported total or partial alleviation of their symptoms. No hernia recurrence was detected during barium swallow examination.
The Belsey approach is a procedure that can be useful as an alternative in selected cases when there are co-morbidities complicating the transabdominal (laparoscopic) approach.
Hiatal hernia; Belsey Mark IV; Thoracic approach
Different methods of pancreatic stump closure after distal pancreatectomy (DP) have been described to decrease the incidence of pancreatic fistula (PF) which still represents one of the most common complications in pancreatic surgery. We retrospectively compared the pancreato-jejunostomy technique with the hand-sewn closure of the pancreatic stump after DP, and analyzed clinical outcomes between the two groups, focusing on PF rate.
Thirty-six patients undergoing open DP at our institution between May 2005 and December 2011 were included. They were divided in two groups depending on pancreatic remnant management: in 24 cases the stump was closed by hand-sewn suture (Group A), while in 12 earlier cases a pancreato-jejunostomy was performed (Group B). We analyzed postoperative data in terms of mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay between the two groups.
PF occurred in 7 of 24 (29.1%) cases of group A (control group) compared to zero fistula rate in group B (anastomosis group) (p=0.005). Operative time was significantly higher in the anastomosis group (p=0.024). Mortality rate was 0% in both groups. Other postoperative outcomes such as hemorrhages, infections, medical complications and length of hospital stay were not significant between the two groups.
Despite a higher operative time, the pancreato-jejunostomy after DP seems to be related to a lower incidence of PF compared to the hand-sewn closure of the pancreatic remnant.
Distal Pancreatectomy; Pancreatic Fistula; Pancreato-jejunostomy; Roux-en-Y; Hand-sewn Closure
In patients with cirrhosis, the synthesis of coagulation factors can fall short, reflected by a prolonged prothrombin time. Although anticoagulants factors are decreased as well, blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation can still be excessive. Blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation is currently managed by transfusion of red blood cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma, and fibrinogen concentrate. Transfusion of these products may paradoxically result in an increased bleeding tendency due to aggravated portal hypertension. The hemostatic effect of these products may therefore be overshadowed by bleeding complications due to volume overload.
In contrast to these transfusion products, prothrombin complex concentrate is a low-volume highly purified concentrate, containing the four vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Previous studies have suggested that administration of prothrombin complex concentrate is an effective method to normalize a prolonged prothrombin time in patients with liver cirrhosis. We aim to investigate whether the pre-operative administration of prothrombin complex concentrate in patients undergoing liver transplantation for end-stage liver cirrhosis, is a safe and effective method to reduce perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements.
This is a double blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial.
Cirrhotic patients with a prolonged INR (≥1.5) undergoing liver transplantation will be randomized between placebo or prothrombin complex concentrate administration prior to surgery. Demographic, surgical and transfusion data will be recorded. The primary outcome of this study is RBC transfusion requirements.
Patients with advanced cirrhosis have reduced plasma levels of both pro- and anticoagulant coagulation proteins. Prothrombin complex concentrate is a low-volume plasma product that contains both procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins and transfusion will not affect the volume status prior to the surgical procedure. We hypothesize that administration of prothrombin complex concentrate will result in a reduction of perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. Theoretically, the administration of prothrombin complex concentrate may be associated with a higher risk of thromboembolic complications. Therefore, thromboembolic complications are an important secondary endpoint and the occurrence of this type of complication will be closely monitored during the study.
The trial is registered at http://www.trialregister.nl with number NTR3174. This registry is accepted by the ICMJE.
Orthotopic Liver Transplantation; Prothrombin Complex Concentrate; Haemostatis; Bleeding; Blood Loss; Transfusion Requirements; Cirrhosis
Peripheral nerve (PN) transplantation and ventral root implantation are the two common types of recovery operations to restore the connection between motoneurons and their target muscles after brachial plexus injury. Despite experience accumulated over the past decade, fundamental knowledge is still lacking concerning the efficacy of the two microsurgical interventions.
Thirty-eight adult female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups. Immediately following root avulsion, animals in the first group (n = 8) and the second group (n = 8) received PN graft and ventral root implantation respectively. The third group (n = 8) and the fourth group (n = 8) received PN graft and ventral root implantation respectively at one week after root avulsion. The fifth group received root avulsion only as control (n = 6). The survival and axonal regeneration of severed motoneurons were investigated at 6 weeks post-implantation.
Re-implantation of ventral roots, both immediately after root avulsion and in delay, significantly increased the survival and regeneration of motoneurons in the avulsed segment of the spinal cord as compared with PN graft transplantation.
The ventral root re-implantation is a better surgical repairing procedure than PN graft transplantation for brachial plexus injury because of its easier manipulation for re-implanting avulsed ventral roots to the preferred site, less possibility of causing additional damage and better effects on motoneuron survival and axonal regeneration.
Avulsion; Peripheral nerve graft transplantation; Ventral root re-implantation; Motoneuron survival and regeneration
The National Screening Program for colorectal cancer is scheduled to commence in the near future. Previous studies on the topic of colorectal cancer and screening have highlighted paucity in public awareness of epidemiology, symptoms and signs of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess understanding of colorectal cancer and screening in a representative sample of the local catchment population of Mayo General Hospital.
A prospective cohort study was instituted utilising an anonymous survey, which was distributed at consecutive general surgical out-patient clinics over a one month period prior to initiation of the screening program. Data collected included demographics, presenting complaint type and duration, and general knowledge of colorectal cancer facts. Attitudes towards screening were also evaluated.
Eighty-eight of the one hundred and thirty six patients sampled were female (65%). Thirty-six per cent of the sample was within the screening target age-group (55–74), with mean age 53years (+/−18). Most respondents recognised bleeding per rectum as a possible symptom of colorectal cancer. A significant proportion, however, incorrectly selected less sinister symptoms as concerning, while only fifty per cent correctly cited weight loss. Family history was acknowledged as a risk factor by fifty-seven per cent with age and gender cited less often (29%, 4%), while forty-seven per cent incorrectly cited stress as a risk. Screening was defined as testing of symptomatic patients or those with a positive family history by eighty-one per cent of respondents, with only nineteen per cent associating screening with an asymptomatic cohort. Strikingly, twenty-five per cent of patients would decline screening.
There remains poverty of awareness regarding colorectal cancer. More public health initiatives are required to help improve understanding of the disease process, and to improve public compliance with the screening initiative.
Colorectal cancer; Screening; Colonoscopy
Clinically, some patients would have false-negative results in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with pleural dissemination, losing their chances of prolonged survival from surgery. Hence, this study aimed to clarify the benefit of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for NSCLC with malignant pleural dissemination that is detected during thoracoscopic lobectomy.
From July 2006, we started the application of RFA in combination with talc pleurodesis (R-TP) for pleural disseminated NSCLCs diagnosed by thoracoscopy. Patients who underwent TP alone (from December 30, 2005 to June 30, 2006) were retrospectively evaluated in compared with R-TP (from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2008). Clinical features were collected and compared to identify the difference in clinical outcomes between R-TP and TP alone. After discharge (three months after surgery), tumor response to treatment was assessed, and follow-up results were recorded to determine the perioperative and mid-time survival difference between the two groups.
In our study, the two groups were comparable in age, sex, performance status (PS) score, tumor location, and histological diagnosis. The incidence rate of intraoperative pleural dissemination was 5.98%, as diagnosed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. All the surgeries were completed without conversion to open thoracotomy. Except for the longer operation duration in the R-TP group (p < 0.001), there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of surgical features. Postoperatively, no mortality occurred in either group during hospital stay; however, two patients from the R-TP group developed complications (9.52%). The complete and partial remission rates in the R-TP group were 80% and 10%, respectively, and the stabilization rate was 10%. After the three-year follow-up, the overall survival (OS) rates of the R-TP and TP groups were 14.29% and 0%, respectively. The median survival and median tumor progression-free survival (PFS) periods were longer in the R-TP group than in the TP group (OS: 19 months versus 12.5 months, p = 0.045; PFS: 9.5 months versus 5.5 months, p = 0.028).
The introduction of RFA to TP offered survival benefits to pleural disseminated NSCLC patients, making it a potential alternative palliative treatment for local tumor. However, multicenter randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings.
Ablative therapy; Lung cancer surgery; Thoracoscopy/VATS
Annually approximately 100.000 patients undergo a laparotomy in the Netherlands. About 15,000 of these patients will develop an incisional hernia. Both open and laparoscopic surgical repair have been proven to be safe. However, the most effective treatment of incisional hernias remains unclear. This study, the ‘INCH-trial’, comparing cost-effectiveness of open and laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, is therefore needed.
A randomized multi-center clinical trial comparing cost-effectiveness of open and laparoscopic repair of incisional hernias. Patients with a symptomatic incisional hernia, eligible for laparoscopic and open incisional hernia repair. Only surgeons, experienced in both open and laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, will participate in the INCH trial. During incisional hernia repair, a mesh is placed under or on top of the fascia, with a minimal overlap of 5 cm. Primary endpoint is length of hospital stay after an incisional hernia repair. Secondary endpoints are time to full recovery within three months after index surgery, post-operative complications, recurrences, mortality and quality of life.
Our hypothesis is that laparoscopic incisional hernia repair comes with a significant shorter hospital stay compared to open incisional hernia repair. A difference of two days is considered significant. One-hunderd-and-thirty-five patients are enrolled in each treatment arm. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective. Primary outcomes are costs per patient related to time-to-recovery and quality of life.
The main goal of the trial is to establish whether laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is superior to conventional open incisional hernia repair in terms of cost-effectiveness. This is measured through length of hospital stay and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are re-operation rate due to post-operative complications or recurrences, mortality and quality of life.
The difference in time to full recovery between the two treatment strategies is thought to be in favor of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is therefore expected to be a more cost-effective approach.
Netherlands Trial register: NTR2808
During recent years laparoscopic cholecystectomy has dramatically increased, sometimes resulting in overtreatment. Aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze all laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in a single center in order to find the percentage of patients whose surgical treatment may be explained with this general trend, and to speculate about the possible causes.
831 patients who underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 1999 to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed.
At discharge, 43.08% of patients were operated on because of at least one previous episode of biliary colic before the one at admission; 14.08% of patients presented with acute lithiasic cholecystitis; 14.68% were operated on because of an increase in bilirubin level; 1.56% were operated on because of a previous episode of jaundice with normal bilirubin at admission; 0.72% had gallbladder adenomas, 0.72% had cholangitis, 0.36% had biliodigestive fistula and one patient (0.12%) had acalculous cholecystitis. By excluding all these patients, 21.18% were operated on without indications.
The broadening of indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy is undisputed and can be considered a consequence of new technologies that have been introduced, increased demand from patients, and the need for practice by inexperienced surgeons. If not prevented, this trend could continue indefinitely.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Open cholecystectomy; Gallbladder stones; Surgical indications; Laparoscopy
Reconstructive breast surgery is now recognized to be an important part of the treatment for breast cancer. Surgical reconstruction options consist of implants, autologous tissue transfer or a combination of the two. The latissimus dorsi flap is a pedicled musculocutaneous flap and is an established method of autologous breast reconstruction.
Lumbar hernias are an unusual type of hernia, the majority occurring after surgery or trauma in this area. The reported incidence of a lumbar hernia subsequent to a latissimus dorsi reconstruction is very low.
We present the unusual case of lumbar herniation after an extended autologous latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction following a mastectomy. The lumbar hernia was confirmed on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open mesh repair of the hernia through the previous latissimus dorsi scar.
Lumbar hernias are a rare complication that can occur following latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction. It should be considered in all patients presenting with persistent pain or swelling in the lumbar region.
Cystatin SN is a secreted protein and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. It has been considered to be a tumor marker for gastrointestinal tract cancer in several functional researches. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Cystatin SN expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been elucidated.
In our study, the expression of Cystatin SN was detected in 209 surgically resected ESCC tissues and 170 peritumoral normal esophageal mucosae by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance of Cystatin SN expression was analysed with Kaplan-Meier plots and the Cox proportional hazards regression models.
The results showed that the immunostaining of Cystatin SN in ESCC tissues was less intense than that in the normal control tissue (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with low tumoral Cystatin SN expression, ESCC patients with tumors high-expression Cystatin SN exhibited increased disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the expression level of Cystatin SN could further stratify the ESCC patients by survival (DFS and OS) in the stage II subgroup (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that Cystatin SN expression, N status and differentiation were independent and significant predictors of survival.
We concluded that ESCC patients whose tumors express high levels of Cystatin SN have favourable survival compared with those patients with low Cystatin SN expression. Tumoral Cystatin SN expression may be an independent predictor of survival for patients with resectable ESCCs.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Cystatin SN; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
Previous meta-analyses have had conflicting conclusions regarding the differences between laparoscopic and open techniques in patients with Crohn’s Disease. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare outcomes in patients with Crohn’s disease undergoing laparoscopic or open surgical resection.
A literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the US National Institute of Health’s Clinical Trials Registry was completed. Randomized clinical trials and non-randomized comparative studies were included if laparoscopic and open surgical resections were compared. Primary outcomes assessed included perioperative complications, recurrence requiring surgery, small bowel obstruction and incisional hernia.
34 studies were included in the analysis, and represented 2,519 patients. Pooled analysis showed reduced perioperative complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection vs. open resection (Risk Ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 – 0.86, P = 0.001). There was no evidence of a difference in the rate of surgical recurrence (Rate Ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.54 – 1.11, P = 0.17) or small bowel obstruction (Rate Ratio 0.63, 95% CI 0.28 – 1.45, P = 0.28) between techniques. There was evidence of a decrease in incisional hernia following laparoscopic surgery (Rate Ratio 0.24, 95% CI 0.07 – 0.82, P = 0.02).
This is the largest review in this topic. The results of this analysis are based primarily on non-randomized studies and thus have significant limitations in regards to selection bias, confounding, lack of blinding and potential publication bias. Although we found evidence of decreased perioperative complications and incisional hernia in the laparoscopic group, further randomized controlled trials, with adequate follow up, are needed before strong recommendations can be made.
Laparoscopy; Crohn’s disease; Perioperative complications; Surgical recurrence; Hernia; Small bowel obstruction
Metastasis in the axillary lymph nodes is the most important known prognostic factor for breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the radioisotope tracer method to the dye-only method by performing sentinel lymph node biopsy on the same patient group during a single surgical session.
Forty-two patients who underwent operations in our clinic from February 2010 to October 2011 and with masses of <5 cm and clinically and radiologicallly negative axilla (T1-2 N0) were prospectively included in this study. After paraffin examination results were obtained, the numbers and metastatic states of the lymph nodes that were unidentifiable during surgery (although they were stained) but were detected by a gamma probe, lymph nodes that were only stained, lymph nodes that were only radioactive (hot), and lymph nodes that were both stained and radioactive (stained-hot) were determined in all patients. In patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection, the total numbers of lymph nodes removed and their metastatic states were determined separately.
At least one blue-stained sentinel lymph node was identified in all patients during the blue-stained lymph node detection stage. The average number of sentinel nodes removed at this stage was 2.1 ± 1.1. In the second surgical stage (the stage in which nodes with axillary counts were investigated with the gamma probe) in these 41 patients, at least one additional hot node was removed, or at least one of the nodes that was removed because it was blue was also hot. In addition to the lymph nodes removed in the dye stage, 34 hot lymph nodes were excised from 21 patients. Overall, the average number of hot lymph nodes removed was 2.9 ± 1.5. In all patients, subsequent frozen sections and histopathological examinations were 100% concordant with the sentinel lymph nodes that were removed; the stained sentinel lymph nodes that were removed first did not affect the decision to perform axillary dissection.
The results of our study indicate that performing sentinel lymph node biopsy with dye only is sufficient and as effective as the combined method.
Breast cancer; Axilla; Sentinel lymph node; Blue-dye; Radionuclide
Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a rare vascular deformity. It is thought to be secondary to extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction, with formation of serpiginous collateral vessels around the extra-hepatic bile duct, and even the gallbladder. Surgery is difficult because the vessels have irregular courses, are somewhat fragile and bleed easily. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy, an emerging procedure for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis, has limitations especially in anatomically complex cases.
We describe a 44-year-old woman with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Computed tomography revealed a series of tortuous collateral veins at the liver hilum, with the extra-hepatic portal vein occluded at the level of the spleno-portal junction. However, the distended vessels were not particularly close to the cystic duct. We performed single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) for cholecystectomy via a trans-umbilical incision. By pulling the cystic duct out along with neighboring cavernous vessels, we were able to secure detachment of the cystic duct from Calot’s triangle and ligation of the cystic artery. Total operating time was 132 minutes and blood loss was 370 grams. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 2 with no perfusion abnormalities in the liver.
We must pay meticulous attention to the area of Calot’s triangle when performing SILS cholecystectomy with CTPV. SILS cholecystectomy might be an option in highly experienced facilities.
Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV); Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS)
Non-cancerous diseases of the breast have assumed increasing importance because of the public awareness of breast cancer. These benign diseases are a recognized important risk factor for later breast cancer which can develop in either breast. The risk estimate of these benign breast diseases has not been well established in sub Saharan Africa. Women with benign proliferative or atypical breast lesions have a two- fold risk of developing breast cancer in western populations. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence of proliferative disease ( BPBD) with and without atypia among Ugandan Black women.
A cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Mulago Hospital Breast Clinic between January 2012 and June 2012; 208 women aged 12 years and above with palpable breast lumps were screened. Fine needle aspiration biopsies were taken for cytological examination.
Of the 208 women with benign breast lumps screened, 195 were recruited in the study. The prevalence of BPBD was 18% (35/195). BPBD with atypia was 5.6% (11/195). The mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 28.4 years and 23.26 kg/m2 respectively. The commonest lesions were fibroadenomas for 57%, (111/195), and fibrocystic change were 21% (40/195). Most BPBD with atypia lesions were in the fibrocystic category.
Benign proliferative breast diseases are common, found mostly among premenopausal women. A significant proportion of BPBD had atypical proliferation. An accurate breast cancer risk estimate study for BPBD is recommended.
Benign proliferative breast; Atypia; Breast cancer