Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (1051)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
16.  Correction to 2010 83: 811-813 doi: 10.1259/bjr/49490647 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1001):483.
PMCID: PMC3473644
17.  A painful forefoot mass 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20110633.
PMCID: PMC3635783  PMID: 23435279
18.  CT findings of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients: a case-controlled comparison with immunocompetent patients 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20120209.
To describe CT findings of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary infection in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients (ICPs) and to compare these findings with those in immunocompetent patients.
From July 2000 to August 2007, 369 patients (mean age 58.3 years; 169 males and 200 females) with pulmonary NTM infection were retrospectively reviewed. Of these 369 patients, 24 ICPs (mean age 64.8 years; 15 males and 9 females) were identified. 16 patients had diabetes mellitus, and 6 patients had received long-term steroid therapy. One had received solid organ transplantation and one had received high-dose chemotherapy for haematological disease. 24 age- and sex-matched immunocompetent patients (mean age 64.6 years; 15 males and 9 females) were selected as the control group from the same registry. CT images were reviewed in consensus by three chest radiologists, who were blinded to immune status. Each lung lobe was evaluated in terms of extent of the lesion, bronchiectasis, parenchymal opacity and the presence of ancillary findings.
A total of 287 lobes were evaluated in ICPs and the control group. The ICPs showed a higher prevalence of ill-defined nodules, with cavities and large opacity >2 cm with/without cavity (p=0.03, 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Regardless of the immune status, the most common CT findings were bronchiectasis and ill-defined nodules without cavity.
The most common CT findings of pulmonary NTM infection in ICPs were bronchiectasis and ill-defined nodules, similar to those in the control group. Ill-defined nodules with cavity and large opacity >2 cm with/without cavity were more frequently found in ICPs.
Advances in knowledge:
In patients affected by NTM infection, large opacities and cavitation in pulmonary nodules are more frequent in ICPs than in immunocompetent patients.
PMCID: PMC3635784  PMID: 23440166
19.  Improving radiotherapy quality assurance in clinical trials: assessment of target volume delineation of the pre-accrual benchmark case 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20120398.
As the complexity of radiotherapy (RT) trials increases, issues surrounding target volume delineation will become more important. Some form of outlining assessment prior to trial entry is increasingly being mandated in UK RT trials. This document produced by the Outlining and Imaging Subgroup (OISG) of the National Cancer Research Institute will address methods to reduce interobserver variation in clinical trials and how to conduct an assessment of outlining through a pre-accrual benchmark case. We review currently available methods of describing the variation and identify areas where further work is needed. The OISG would encourage ongoing discussion with chief investigators in order to provide advice on individual aspects of benchmark case assessment for current and future trials.
PMCID: PMC3635785  PMID: 23392188
20.  Altered fractionation outcomes for hypoxic head and neck cancer using the HYP-RT Monte Carlo model 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20120443.
Altered fractionation radiotherapy is simulated on a set of virtual tumours to assess the total doses required for tumour control compared with clinical head and neck data and the doses required to control hypoxic vs well-oxygenated tumours with different radiobiological properties.
The HYP-RT model is utilised to explore the impact of tumour oxygenation and the onset times of accelerated repopulation (AR) and reoxygenation (ROx) during radiotherapy. A biological effective dose analysis is used to rank the schedules based on their relative normal tissue toxicities.
Altering the onset times of AR and ROx has a large impact on the doses required to achieve tumour control. Immediate onset of ROx and 2-week onset time of AR produce results closely predicting average human outcomes in terms of the total prescription doses in clinical trials. Modifying oxygen enhancement ratio curves based on dose/fraction significantly reduces the dose (5–10 Gy) required for tumour control for hyperfractionated schedules. HYP-RT predicts 10×1.1 Gy per week to be most beneficial, whereas the conventional schedule is predicted as beneficial for early toxicity but has average–poor late toxicity.
HYP-RT predicts that altered radiotherapy schedules increase the therapeutic ratio and may be used to make predictions about the prescription doses required to achieve tumour control for tumours with different oxygenation levels and treatment responses.
Advances in knowledge:
Oxic and hypoxic tumours have large differences in total radiation dose requirements, affected by AR and ROx onset times by up to 15–25 Gy for the same fractionation schedule.
PMCID: PMC3635786  PMID: 23392195
21.  Relationship between T2 relaxation and apparent diffusion coefficient in malignant and non-malignant prostate regions and the effect of peripheral zone fractional volume 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20120469.
To establish whether T2 relaxation and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in normal prostate and tumour are related and to investigate the effects of glandular compression from an enlarged transition zone (TZ) on peripheral zone (PZ) T2 and ADC by correlating them with the peripheral zone fractional volume (PZFV).
48 consecutive patients prospectively underwent multiecho T2 weighted (T2W) (echo times 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ms) and diffusion-weighted (b=0, 100, 300, 500, 800 s mm−2) endorectal MRI. In 43 evaluable patients, single slice whole PZ, TZ and tumour (focal hypointense signal on T2W images in a biopsy-positive octant) regions of interest were transferred to T2 and ADC maps by slice matching. T2 and ADC values were correlated, and PZ values were correlated with PZFV.
T2 and ADC values were significantly different among groups [T2 mean±standard deviation (SD) PZ, 149±49 ms; TZ, 125±26 ms; tumour, 97±23 ms; PZ vs TZ, p=0.002; PZ vs tumour, p<0.0001; TZ vs tumour, p<0.0001; ADC×10−6 mm2 s−1 mean±SD PZ, 1680±215; TZ, 1478±139; tumour, 1030±205; p<0.0001]. Significant positive correlations existed between T2 and ADC for PZ, TZ, PZ and TZ together, but not for tumour (r=0.515, p<0.0001; r=0.300, p=0.03; r=0.526, p<0.0001; and r=0.239, p=0.32, respectively). No significant correlation existed between PZFV and PZ T2 (r=0.10, p=0.5) or ADC (r=0.03, p=0.8).
The correlation between T2 and ADC that exists in normal prostate is absent in tumour. PZ compression by an enlarged TZ does not alter PZ T2 or ADC to affect tumour–PZ contrast.
Advances in Knowledge:
Microstructural features of tumours alter diffusivity independently of their effects on T2 relaxation.
PMCID: PMC3635787  PMID: 23426849
22.  The effective dose assessment of C-arm CT in hepatic arterial embolisation therapy 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20120551.
To assess the effective dose of the liver C-arm computed tomography (CT) scan during hepatic arterial embolisation surgery with clinical dose–area product (DAP) data from Taiwan.
The experiment used two kinds of phantoms: RANDO® Man and RANDO Woman (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY), embedded with thermoluminescent dosemeters at locations according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection 103 report. The conversion factors of DAP to effective doses for males and females, respectively, were obtained. The clinical DAP data of liver C-arm CT scan during hepatic arterial embolisation surgery were collected in a hospital in Taiwan.
There were 125 liver transarterial embolisation therapy cases, including 94 males and 31 females, from February 2009 to June 2010. C-arm CT was used 38 times for males and 17 times for females. The corresponding average and standard deviation of clinical DAP were 61.0±6.6 Gy cm2 and 52.2±8.3 Gy cm2, respectively.
The DAP of RANDO Man and RANDO Woman phantoms simply scanned by C-arm CT are much lower than that of patients. After consideration of the clinical DAP of patients, the effective doses of a liver C-arm CT scan recommended for males and females in Taiwan are 11.5±2.3 mSv and 11.3±3.0 mSv, respectively.
Advances in knowledge:
The conversion factors of DAP to effective doses for males and females are 0.19±0.03 mSv Gy−1 cm−2 and 0.22±0.05 mSv Gy−1 cm−2. Only if the actual DAP value of a patient scan is multiplied by the conversion factor can the correct effective dose be determined.
PMCID: PMC3635788  PMID: 23403454
23.  Patterns of renal angiomyolipoma regression post embolisation on medium- to long-term follow-up 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20120633.
To assess the patterns of regression of renal angiomyolipoma (AML) post embolisation and report the outcomes related to the use of different embolic materials.
A retrospective review of all patients who underwent embolisation for renal AML at our institution between January 2004 and April 2012.
13 patients underwent 16 episodes of embolisation. Coils were used as the primary embolisation material in 10 episodes and microspheres in 6 episodes. The size reduction rate highly correlated on CT follow-up between the two groups, with 25.6% vs 22.7% reduction at 12 months, 27.5% vs 25.1% at 24 months, 35.0% vs 33.0% at 36 months and 35.0% vs 36.8% at 48 months. During follow-up, all tumours reduced in size with one patient requiring subsequent embolisation whose tumour reduced by only 6.5% after 1 year and subsequently exhibited regrowth after 4 years. Two patients presented with rebleeding and underwent repeat embolisation. Our overall retreatment rate (23%) is well within the literature range (up to 37%). None of the patients underwent surgery.
The majority of AML shrinkage occurs within the first year following embolisation and appears to plateau after 3 years, which could have an impact on follow-up strategy. The percentage reduction at 1 year may reflect the long-term effect of embolisation with tumours demonstrating minor size reduction more likely to relapse at long-term follow-up. Embolisation of renal AML produces durable long-term results regardless of the choice of embolic agent.
Advances in knowledge:
These findings provide information to guide CT follow-up of renal AML post embolisation.
PMCID: PMC3635789  PMID: 23392196
24.  Radiological and clinical features of adult non-puerperal mastitis 
Tan, H | Li, R | Peng, W | Liu, H | Gu, Y | Shen, X
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20120657.
To describe the radiological and clinical features of adult non-puerperal mastitis and to determine the most accurate method of preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.
Clinical and imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed in 51 females with non-puerperal mastitis, which was confirmed by biopsy/surgical pathology. All 51 patients had pre-operative MRI; 45 patients also had sonograms and 25 also had mammograms, pre-operatively.
Of the 51 cases with non-puerperal mastitis, 94.1% (48/51) were confirmed as having acute or chronic inflammation, and the other 3 had plasma cell mastitis; areola papillaris inflammation was found in 39.2% (20/51) of the cases. Overall, 6 of the 25 cases that were examined with mammography and 2 of the 45 cases that were examined with sonography appeared normal, but all 51 lesions were positively identified on MRI. Asymmetrical density (12/25) on mammograms and solitary or separated/contiguous, clustered, hypoechoic mass-like lesions (31/45) on ultrasound were the most common signs of non-puerperal mastitis. On enhanced MRI, 90.2% (46/51) of patients showed non-mass-like enhanced lesions. Multiple regional enhancements in the pattern of distribution (32/46) and separated or contiguous, clustered, rim-like enhancements in the pattern of internal enhancement (29/46) were the most common manifestations in non-mass-like enhanced lesions. Of the 51 patients, mastitis Type 1 and Type 2 in the time–signal intensity curve were detected in 47.1% and 51.0% of the patients, respectively. The breast imaging reporting and data system categories with the highest number of patients were Category 0 (9/25) on mammography, Category 4a on sonography (18/45) and Category 4a on MRI (29/51).
The findings from mammography and ultrasound are non-specific; therefore, using MR can be helpful in the diagnosis, especially in the presence of non-mass-like enhancements that are multiple, regional, separated, or contiguous, clustered and rim-like.
Advances in knowledge:
Mastitis is often neglected because of the lack of typical clinical signs and symptoms. This study has assessed and described the clinical features and imaging findings of adult non-puerperal mastitis on mammograms, sonograms and MRI and found that MRI is more specific in the diagnosis of disease.
PMCID: PMC3635790  PMID: 23392197
25.  High-intensity focused ultrasound: advances in technology and experimental trials support enhanced utility of focused ultrasound surgery in oncology 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20130044.
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a rapidly maturing technology with diverse clinical applications. In the field of oncology, the use of HIFU to non-invasively cause tissue necrosis in a defined target, a technique known as focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), has considerable potential for tumour ablation. In this article, we outline the development and underlying principles of HIFU, overview the limitations and commercially available equipment for FUS, then summarise some of the recent technological advances and experimental clinical trials that we predict will have a positive impact on extending the role of FUS in cancer therapy.
PMCID: PMC3635791  PMID: 23403455

Results 1-25 (1051)