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Year of Publication
1.  Reviewer acknowledgement 2014 
Contributing reviewers
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control would like to thank the following colleagues for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for the journal in 2014.
doi:10.1186/s13756-015-0046-7
PMCID: PMC4334413
2.  Reviewer acknowledgement 2013 
Contributing reviewers
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control would like to thank the following colleagues for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for the journal in 2013.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-3-1
PMCID: PMC3896811  PMID: 24433391
3.  Reviewer acknowledgement 2012 
Contributing reviewers
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control would like to thank the following colleagues for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for the journal in 2012.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-2-4
PMCID: PMC3626655  PMID: 23369500
4.  “The Chennai declaration” - Indian doctors’ fight against antimicrobial resistance 
“The Chennai Declaration” is the result of the first ever joint meeting of medical societies in India addressing antibiotic resistance. The declaration is not a policy by itself, but a call for a national policy. The Declaration has looked into all major aspects of the problem of antimicrobial resistance, has suggested practical solutions, explained in detail the responsibility of each and every stakeholder.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-2-7
PMCID: PMC3600017  PMID: 23452398
6.  Measuring the quality of infection control in Dutch nursing homes using a standardized method; the Infection prevention RIsk Scan (IRIS) 
Background
We developed a standardised method to assess the quality of infection control in Dutch Nursing Home (NH), based on a cross-sectional survey that visualises the results. The method was called the Infection control RIsk Infection Scan (IRIS). We tested the applicability of this new tool in a multicentre surveillance executed June and July 2012.
Methods
The IRIS includes two patient outcome-variables, i.e. the prevalence of healthcare associated infections (HAI) and rectal carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E); two patient-related risk factors, i.e. use of medical devices, and antimicrobial therapy; and three ward-related risk factors, i.e. environmental contamination, availability of local guidelines, and shortcomings in infection prevention preconditions. Results were categorised as low-, intermediate- and high risk, presented in an easy-to-read graphic risk spider-plot. This plot was given as feedback to management and healthcare workers of the NH.
Results
Large differences were found among most the variables in the different NH. Common shortcomings were the availability of infection control guidelines and the level of environmental cleaning. Most striking differences were observed in the prevalence of ESBL carriage, ranged from zero to 20.6% (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
The IRIS provided a rapid and easy to understand assessment of the infection control situation of the participating NH. The results can be used to improve the quality of infection control based on the specific needs of a NH but needs further validation in future studies. Repeated measurement can determine the effectiveness of the interventions. This makes the IRIS a useful tool for quality systems.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-3-26
PMCID: PMC4169692  PMID: 25243067
Nursing homes; Healthcare associated infections; Antimicrobial resistance; Infection control; Quality improvement; Surveillance
9.  Hand hygiene and aseptic techniques during routine anesthetic care - observations in the operating room 
Background
More knowledge is needed about task intensity in relation to hand hygiene in the operating room during anesthetic care in order to choose effective improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to explore the indications and occurrence of hand hygiene opportunities and the adherence to hand hygiene guidelines during routine anesthetic care in the operating room.
Methods
Structured observational data on hand hygiene during anesthetic care during 94 surgical procedures was collected using the World Health Organization’s observational tool in a surgical department consisting of 16 operating rooms serving different surgical specialties such as orthopedic, gynecological, urological and general surgery.
Results
A total of 2,393 opportunities for hand hygiene was recorded. The number of hand hygiene opportunities when measured during full-length surgeries was mean = 10.9/hour, SD 6.1 with an overall adherence of 8.1%. The corresponding numbers for the induction phase were, mean =77.5/h, SD 27.4 with an associated 3.1% adherence to hand hygiene guidelines. Lowest adherence was observed during the induction phase before an aseptic task (2.2%) and highest during full-length surgeries after body fluid exposure (15.9%).
Conclusions
There is compelling evidence for low adherence to hand hygiene guidelines in the operating room and thus an urgent need for effective improvement strategies. The conclusion of this study is that any such strategy should include education and practical training in terms of how to carry out hand hygiene and aseptic techniques and how to use gloves correctly. Moreover it appears to be essential to optimize the work processes in order to reduce the number of avoidable hand hygiene opportunities thereby enhancing the possibilities for adequate use of HH during anesthetic care.
doi:10.1186/s13756-015-0042-y
PMCID: PMC4328079
10.  The costs of nosocomial resistant gram negative intensive care unit infections among patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome- a propensity matched case control study 
Background
Infections due to multi-drug resistant gram negative bacilli (RGNB) in critically ill patients have been reported to be associated with increased morbidity and costs and only a few studies have been done in Asia. We examined the financial impact of nosocomial RGNB infections among critically ill patients in Singapore.
Methods
A nested case control study was done for patients at medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary university hospital (August 2007-December 2011) matched by propensity scores. Two groups of propensity-matched controls were selected for each case patient with nosocomial drug resistant gram negative infection: at-risk patients with no gram negative infection or colonization (Control A) and patients with ICU acquired susceptible gram negative infection (SGNB) (Control B). The costs of the hospital stay, laboratory tests and antibiotics prescribed as well as length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test.
Results
Of the 1539 patients included in the analysis, 76 and 65 patients had ICU acquired RGNB and SGNB infection respectively. The median(range) total hospital bill per day for patients with RGNB infection was 1.5 times higher than at-risk patients without GNB infection [Singapore dollars 2637.8 (458.7-20610.3) vs. 1757.4 (179.9-6107.4), p0.0001]. The same trend was observed when compared with SGNB infected patients. The median costs per day of antibiotics and laboratory investigations were also found to be significantly higher for patients with RGNB infection. The length of stay post infection was not found to be different between those infected with RGNB and SGNB.
Conclusion
The economic burden of RGNB infections to the patients and the hospital is considerable. Efforts need to be taken to prevent their occurrence by cost effective infection control practices.
doi:10.1186/s13756-015-0045-8
PMCID: PMC4316763  PMID: 25653851
Resistant gram negative infection; Sensitive gram negative infection; Critically ill patient; ICU; Costs

Results 1-25 (613)