Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity accounts for 10–30% of the acute renal failure (ARF) among drug-induced ARF. In Ayurveda such side effects are considered as the poisonous effects of low potent poisons called gara viṣa. Bilvādi agada (BA), a classical formulation is indicated in gara viṣa and most of its ingredients have proven for their nephroprotective activity.
The aim was to evaluate the effect of BA in GM-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
BA, GM, normal saline were procured from standard companies.
Settings and Designs:
Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, viz. Control group which received normal saline intraperitoneal (i.p.) daily for 8 days; toxic group received GM 80 mg/kg/day i.p. for 8 days, and trial group received both GM 80 mg/kg/day i.p. and BA 216 mg/each rat weighing ~200 g orally 1 h after administration of GM.
All the values were expressed as mean ± standard error and data were analyzed by applying one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test for multiple comparison.
BA treated group showed a significant change (P < 0.05) in levels of serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and urine potassium. There was no significant change (P > 0.05) seen in serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium and phosphorus and urine sodium, chloride in all three groups. Glomerular congestion, interstitial edema, tubular necrosis, interstitial hemorrhage was reduced in BA treated group. The results of this study indicate that BA reduces GM-induced nephrotoxicity and it may be due to anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, diuretic and anti-oxidant properties of drugs. Further studies are necessary to explore the exact mechanism of BA in nephroprotection.
Bilwaadi Agada; gara visha; gentamicin; nephroprotection; nephrotoxicity
Treatment of memory impairment associated with dementia such as Alzheimer's disease is still inadequate and requires development of new drugs.
The objective was to evaluate the memory enhancing effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil.
Materials and Methods:
C. paniculatus seed oil was mixed with equal amount of pure ghee and administered orally to mice in the dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Piracetam was used as a standard nootropic. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests were used as a models to test spatial and fear memory respectively. Scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), was used as an amnestic agent.
Mice receiving C. paniculatus showed significant memory enhancement as compared to scopolamine group. The effect of C. paniculatus and combination of C. paniculatus with piracetam was comparable to that with piracetam alone.
The present study demonstrates that C. paniculatus seed oil has memory enhancing effect and hence can be developed as a potential drug in the treatment of dementia.
Ayurveda; Celastrus paniculatus; elevated plus maze; passive avoidance test; piracetam
The present study was planned to assess effects of Maṇḍurabhasma (MB) on structural and functional integrity of small intestine using an animal model of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in rat.
IDA was induced by giving iron deficient diet and retro-orbital bloodletting for 21 days in Wistar female rats. Rats (n = 72) were divided into six groups: (i) Control group, (ii) IDA rats, (iii) IDA rats receiving vehicle, (iv) rats receiving ferrous sulfate (40 mg/kg), (vi) rats receiving a low dose (22.5 mg/kg) of MB, (vi) rats receiving a high dose (45 mg/kg) of MB. Treatment was conducted for a period of 21 days followed by an assessment of change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels, lactase levels, lipid peroxidation activity by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and jejunal morphometry.
In the present study, the lactase activity was markedly reduced in iron-deficient rats. Our study has demonstrated that intestinal morphology and MDA levels were not altered in the animals with IDA as compared to normal animals. In phase II, improvement in Hb response to ferrous sulfate was accompanied by an improvement in lactase activity. However, it significantly increased MDA levels with derangement of the normal villous structure. Rats receiving a low dose of MB did not have increased MDA levels. It did not alter the jejunal villous structure and improved lactase activity, but hematinic activity was found to be less than that of ferrous sulfate. Rats receiving a high dose of MB showed significantly improved Hb as well as lactase levels. They exhibited damage to the villous structure and increased MDA levels, but the effects were significantly less as compared to ferrous sulfate group.
Rats receiving a high dose of MB have shown improvement in hematinic and lactase levels comparable to those receiving ferrous sulfate. However, it causes lesser oxidative damage as compared to ferrous sulfate. This is an encouraging finding because it indicates the potential of MB to cause lesser gastrointestinal side effects compared to ferrous sulfate.
Gastrointestinal side effects; jejunal morphometry; lactase levels; lipid peroxidation; Maṇḍurabhasma
Malaria is one of the major obstacles to the socioeconomic development of several developing countries. Adequate treatment of the disease is becoming increasingly difficult due to the worsening problems of drug resistance in many parts of the world. Therefore, increased efforts in antimalarial drug discovery are urgently needed.
This study was designed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe citrina Carter and Brandham and its major constituent.
Materials and Methods:
The leaf latex of A. citrina was dissolved in methanol and subjected to preparative thin layer chromatography. Structure of the isolated compound was determined on the basis of its electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry, 1H, 13C NMR and DEPT spectral data. The latex and its isolated compound were tested for their in vivo antimalarial activity using a 4-day suppressive test against chloroquine sensitive ANKA strain of Plasmodium berghei in mice.
Homonataloin A/B was isolated as a major component of the latex. Both the latex and isolated compound exhibited significant (P < 0.001) antimalarial activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg with parasite suppression of 60.59% and 67.52%, respectively. No significant adverse signs of toxicity were observed in mice treated with the leaf latex up to the highest dose (5000 mg/kg).
The results of this study indicate that the antimalarial activity of the plant is attributed in part or in full to the presence of homonataloin A/B in the latex. It also validates the traditional use of the plant as an antimalarial agent.
4-day suppressive test; acute toxicity; Aloe citrina; antimalarial activity; homonataloin A/B
Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) fruit, bark and leaves are used for various conditions of ailments in traditional systems of medicine since ancient times.
This study is designed to lay down the various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards which will be helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of this medicinal plant.
Materials and Methods:
Various methods including macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, and phytochemical methods were applied to determine the diagnostic features for the identification and standardization of intact and powdered drug of Z. armatum leaf, fruit, and bark.
The shape, size, color, odor, surface characteristics were determined for the intact drug and powdered materials of leaf, bark and fruit of Z. armatum. Light and electron microscope images of cross-section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical including fluorescence analysis of powdered drug proved useful to differentiate the powdered drug material. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid and rutin.
The data generated from this study would be of help in the authentication of various parts of Z. armatum, an important constituent of various herbal drug formulations. The qualitative and quantitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down pharmacopoeial standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described here along with phytochemical, physicochemical studies, which will help in authentication and quality control.
Pharmacognostic; physicochemical; phytochemical; standardization; Zanthoxylum armatum
Medicinal plants, owing to their different mechanisms such as antioxidants effects, may improve learning and memory impairments in diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis (CO), has a significant antioxidant activity.
To examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of CO on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats.
Settings and Design:
A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: Control, diabetic, control + extract of CO and diabetic control + extract of CO groups with free access to regular rat diet.
Subjects and Methods:
Diabetes in diabetic rats was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After confirmation of diabetes, oral administration of 300 mg/kg CO extract to extract-treated groups have been done. PAL was tested 8 weeks after onset of treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment.
Statistical Analysis Used:
The statistical analysis of data was performed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference post-hoc analysis.
Diabetes decreased learning and memory. Effect of CO extract in retention test (after 24 and 48 h) has been shown a significant decrease in step-through latency and increase in time spent in the dark compartment part. Also the extract partially improved hyperglycemia and reduced body weight.
Taken together, CO extract can improve PAL and memory impairments in STZ-diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to its antioxidant, anticholinergic activities or its power to reduce hyperglycemia.
Calendula officinalis; diabetes mellitus; learning; memory; passive avoidance
Fistula-in-ano is a common surgical problem. Horse-shoe fistulas usually have an internal opening in the posterior midline and extend anteriorly and laterally to one or both ischiorectal spaces by way of the deep potential space. The “Śambukāvarta Bhagandara” described by Suśruta can be correlated with the horse-shoe type of fistula. In this condition, neither fistulotomy nor “Kṣārasūtra” treatment alone, are useful hence there is a need for newer innovative surgical techniques to tackle this challenging disease. An integral approach of incision and drainage of both the abscess on the arms of the horse-shoe fistula with Kṣārasūtra ligation at 6 o’ clock position proves to be successful. We have tried the same technique with good results. No recurrence was found in the patients during the follow-up period of 6 months. A 45-year-old female with a known case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension approached with both right and left ischiorectal fossa inflammatory swelling. An innovative approach was used to manage horse-shoe fistula by making an additional opening below the anus at 6 o’clock position. Apāmārga Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread made using apāmārga) was ligated through the additional opening to the internal opening at 6 o’clock position for draining through both the cavities. Kṣārasūtra was changed weekly and the fistula healed completely by 3 months.
Bhagandara; fistula; horse-shoe fistula; Kṣārasūtra
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting function and development. CP is defined as a nonprogressive neuromotor disorder of cerebral origin. It cannot be correlated with any single disease or condition in Ayurveda, as it is a multi-factorial disease with clinical features of a wide variation. According to Vāgbhaṭa, it is classified in the disease categories of sahaja (hereditary) and garbhaja (congenital) and jātaja (psychosomatic) type of diseases. Of the many types and subtypes of CP, none has any known “cure.” Here, an effort was made to treat a 3-year-old male child with spastic type of CP using multiple Ayurveda treatment modalities. At the end of 94 days of treatment, Pañcakarma procedures along with internal medication resulted in 10–15% improvement in the overall effect of therapy.
Ayurvedic approach in cerebral palsy; Chaturbhadra Kalpa Basti; Panchakarma in pediatric
Diabetic Foot ulcer is the commonest burning problem in the society. Many histopathological studies show prolonged inflammatory phase in diabetic wounds. In Sushruta Samhita, Vimlāpanakarma (gentle massage) quoted, as first line of treatment for Vranashotha (inflammation).
A 70 yrs old male patient, presented with complaints of ulcer associated with severe pain and reddish skin discoloration over ventral aspect of 3rd toe of right foot since 2 months. Vimlāpanakarma performed with Jātyādi taila around the wound for about 15-20 minutes daily for 10 days and follow-up done for period of 45 days.
By Vimlāpanakarma with Jātyādi taila there will be raised local temperature, due to which vasoconstriction is relieved and necessary nutrients, oxygen, insulin etc. are carried to the wound site, thereby improving the anoxic condition of wound.
Vimlāpanakarma showed significant role in wound healing of Diabetic Foot ulcer, in a short period of time 10 days with no recurrence seen till 45 days follow-up.
Diabetic foot ulcer; vimlāpanakarma; Vrana; wound healing
Pennisetum alopecuroides (Poaceae) is a grass predominantly distributed in tropics and sub tropics. It is used as a cattle feed in many regions.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activity of ethanol extract of P. alopecuroides (EEPA) on cultured A549 human lung cancer cell lines.
Settings and Design:
The anti-oxidant activity of ethanol extract was evaluated at dose level 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. The in vitro antiproliferative activity was measured at doses of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml.
Materials and Methods:
The free radical scavenging activity of the EEPA was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and in vitro antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung cancer cells was conducted by using MTT assay method.
The phytochemical screening revealed that the P. alopecuroides contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids as the major secondary metabolites. The IC50 value of DPPH scavenging activity was found to be 44.41 μg/ml and 31.02 μg/ml for a mixture of EEPA and standard ascorbic acid, respectively. In vitro MTT assay showed that EEPA had anti-proliferation effects on A549 cells in a dose dependent manner.
This is the 1st time a pharmacological exploration of P. alopecuroides grasses has been conducted. We have shown that P. alopecuroides exhibits good free radical scavenging and strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung cancer cell lines.
2; 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; cancer; MTT assay
Nasya karma is prime treatment modality for ūrdhvajatrugata vikāra. Though classics clearly mention yogya (arha), ayogya (anarha) criteria for Nasya karma some complications were noticed while practicing. In KLEUS Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital Belgaum, out of 2867 patients 58 (0.58%) cases reported various complications during and after Nasya karma in the year of 2011 even after taking utmost care in selection of patients as well as drugs. This gave rise to need to develop quick screening criteria to minimize errors.
To develop Nasya fitness form for clinical practice to further minimize unusual complications and thus obtain the maximum result.
Materials and Methods:
Literature pertaining to Nasya karma, Nāsa śarīra with anatomy of nose, vasculature, innervation, examination of the nose and various anatomical pathologies were considered to develop the fitness form.
On the basis of examination of external nose, nasal cavity, concha, nasopharynx and paranasal sinus by anterior and posterior rhinoscopic examination fitness form was developed.
Present fitness format will not only help to assess the nasal pathologies, which are obstacles for drug delivery, but also will help to attain optimum results and avoid unusual complications.
Nasya fitness; Nasya fitness form; Nasya karma