Shadbindu Taila (ST) is an Ayurvedic formulation used as a remedy for loosening of tooth, weakness of the eyesight, loss of hair, diseases of head, etc., Present study is an attempt to develop some newer approaches for the quality control and standardization of ST. Standardized operating procedure for the preparation of ST was developed in accordance with Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Preliminary phytochemical, physicochemical, and chromatographic evaluation of ST was carried out. Safety of ST was evaluated in terms of skin irritation test and presence of heavy metals. Chemical characterization of ST was done on the basis of kaempferol using validated -High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) method. ST did not show presence of any of the heavy metals analyzed and was found non-irritant on rabbit skin. The quality control parameters resulted after scientific evaluation of ST can be used as reference standard for quality control/assurance laboratory of a pharmaceutical firm in order to have a proper quality check over its preparation and processing.
High performance thin layer chromatography; kaempferol; safety; Shadbindu Taila; standardization
Trigonella foenum-graecum is one of the widely used herbs in food and medicine. The seeds of the plants are investigated for antidiabetic potential; however, no efforts have been done to explore the potential of leaves to modify carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes viz. α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The present work was designed to investigate the inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate and water extract of T. foenum-graecum on enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Different concentrations of extracts were used to study inhibition of enzymatic activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. A dose dependent inhibitory effect on enzymes was observed. The current study, for the first time, revealed α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of T. foenum-graecum and the study could be helpful to isolate and characterize compounds responsible for it.
α-Amylase; α-glucosidase; Methika; Trigonella foenum-graecum
Santarpanottha Vikaras (diseases due to excessive nutrition) are increasing during current times. Medodushti (disorders of fat metabolism) serves as one of the important etiological factor in most of these disorders including Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). IHD is identified as one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in both developing and developed countries. Retention and deposition of serum lipids resulting in decreased flow of blood in coronary arteries being the underlying cause. Conventional and herbal drugs are being used to lower levels of serum cholesterol to prevent this menace. In this regard, an attempt has been made to critically review the Medohara and Lekhaniya (Anti-obesity and Hypolipidemic) drugs mentioned in Ganas (group of drugs) of Ayurvedic classical texts which may abet our understanding of prevention and management of conditions like Dyslipidemia and its complications. Administration of drugs possessing Tikta Rasa (bitter taste), Ushna Veerya (hot in potency), Laghu and Ruksha Guna (light and dry qualities), Katu Vipaka and Vata Kaphahara actions were noted during the analysis.
Dyslipidemia; Lekhana; Medohara; obesity; herbs
Depression is a psychiatric condition in which there is loss of interest in all pleasurable outlets, viz. food, sex, work, friends, hobbies and entertainment. The prevalence rate of the disease is 6-8% in women and 3-5% in men. Ayurveda, the science of life, provides systematic management principles for depression. Mamsyadi Kwatha is one such formulation stated by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya in Siddha Yoga Sangraha and Bheshaja Samhita, which is said to be effective in psychiatric conditions. The ingredients are Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Ashwagandh (Withania somnifera) and Parasika Yavani (Hyocymus niger) in an 8:4:1 ratio, respectively. The test drug was subjected for antidepressant activity in experimental models. The models selected for anti depressant activity were behavioral despair test, anti-reserpine test and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) test in albino mice. The test formulation showed significant inhibition of behavioural despair (P < 0.05), weak to moderate anti-reserpine activity - ptosis (P < 0.001), catatonia (P < 0.01), sedation (P < 0.01) and moderate effect in CFS test (P < 0.050). These effects clearly show that Mamsyadi Kwatha has an anti-depressant activity.
Ashwagandha; catatonia; immobility time; Jatamansi; Mamsyadi Kwatha
Trivanga Bhasma, a metallic preparation containing Bhasmas of Naga (lead), Vanga (tin) and Yashada (zinc), was studied for repeated dose toxicity in Swiss albino mice to estimate No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) or No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). A total of 80 Swiss albino mice of either sex with an average body weight of 28-30 g were equally divided into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV). Group I served as control and was given vehicle (honey: water in 2:3 ratio) Group II, III, and IV received Trivanga Bhasma @ 7.8, 39.5,and 78 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. The effect of drug was assessed on body weight, feed and water consumption changes, hematological, and histopathological parameters. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and examined for gross pathological changes. Histopathological evaluation was performed for control and high dose group. Trivanga Bhasma was found to be safe. No significant clinical signs were noted in all groups studied. No major alterations were observed during histopathological evaluation. Hence, dose rate of 78 mg/kg body weight was established as NOAEL. It is suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses and in a different species so as to establish target organ of toxicity.
Mice; Naga; toxicity study; Trivanga Bhasma; Vanga; Yashada
Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl–2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.
Antioxidant; anti–radical; Cordia dichotoma; diphenyl–2; picrylhydrazyl; reducing power; Shleshmataka
In the present scenario, the available editions of Charaka Samhita contain eight Sthanas only. Charaka Samhita does not contain Uttara-Tantra like Sushruta Samhita and Samhitas of Vagbhata. On contrary, in the 12th chapter of Siddhi Sthana, Charaka has mentioned about Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. So, it is essential to emphasize on this issue, which was not explained in length by commentators of Charaka Samhita. Many controversies raised on the existence and recognition of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. On the other hand, some scholars who belong to a later period have been mentioned certain references in their work, which are claimed to be from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. After a thorough study and scanning of available literature, it is concluded that, Charaka Uttara-Tantra was existing up to the time of Nishchalakara (13th century AD). Nishchalakara has quoted a number of references in Ratnaprabha, which are from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. Furthermore, there is a need to discuss about the existence of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita by further more detailed study and scanning of literatures of Ayurveda and allied literatures.
Chakrapanidatta; Charaka Samhita; Nishchalakara; Ratnaprabha; Tika; Uttara Tantra
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
In the universe all the creatures are related to Adhivyadhi, which indicates mental agony or bodily pain. Acharyas of Ayurveda like Charaka, Sushruta and Kashyap have classified diseases into various categories like Agantuja, Sharirika, Manasika, Swabhavika, etc. Charaka classified diseases based on the prognosis like Sadhya, Asadhya, Mrudu and Daruna. Ayurveda also suggested Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa which includes of Manidharana and chanting Mantras. Astrological sciences suggest 10 types of remedial measures in the treatment of diseases. This science considers that causative factors of various disorders are the Navagrahas (nine planets). The influence of the planets on various procedures like drug processing, bath taking, performing Yajna, wearing Ratna, etc. are well documented in Jyotishashastra. Drugs processed in Chandra Nakshatra acts as ambrosia and subdues Tridoshajanya Vyadhi. Medicated baths are suggested for diseases engendered due to involvement of different planet effects viz. Sarshpa for Shukra, Haridra and Daruharidra for Shani Lodhra for Ketu, Sharpunkha for Rahu, etc. In a close scrutiny it appears that Jyotishashastra Siddhanta can play crucial role in the management of chronic diseases.
Low back pain affects approximately 60.85% of adults during some point of their life and 10% of this is because of Lumbar Spondylosis (LS). Kati Graha which is correlated with LS is a degenerative condition affecting the discs, vertebral bodies, and/or associated joints of the lumbar spine. In current study, assessment of Eranda Muladi Yapana Basti in the management of Kati Graha with special reference to LS has been attempted. 23 patients of either sex in the age between 20 to 65 years having signs and symptoms of LS were selected and were administered Yapana Basti for a period of 15 days. Highly significant results were observed and improvement in cardinal symptoms of Kati Graha was observed. It also provided highly significant results in improving Oswestry Disability Index Scale, range of movements and pain intensity This procedure appears to provide good clinical improvement in pacifying pure Vataja or Vata Kaphaja type of Kati Graha.
Eranda Muladi Yapana Basti; Kati Graham; Lumbar Spondylosis
Premature Ejaculation (PE) is a very common male sexual problem. Anxiety, stress, fear etc., are the main predisposing factors of PE. In Ayurveda, this condition can be correlated with Shukragata Vata. In the present study, fifty five patients with PE were grouped into two and were treated with Stambhanakaraka Yoga (n = 30) and Placebo (n = 20) for a duration of two months, with luke warm water as anupana. Psychological counseling was given to the patients in both the groups. After completion of treatment, Stambhanakaraka Yoga showed significant results against placebo in all parameters, namely Intravaginal Ejaculation Latency Time (IELT), voluntary control over ejaculation, patient and partner's satisfaction, performance anxiety.
Placebo; premature ejaculation; Shukragata Vata; Stambhanakaraka Yoga
Vata is the governing factor in the maintenance of equilibrium in the universe as well as in the body. As age advances, the influence of Vata Dosha progresses, resulting in the process of gradual degeneration of the body. Sandhigatavata (osteoarthritis) is one of the consequences of this process, which is common in the elderly people. This is one of the major causes of chronic disability, affecting the quality of life. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in India is more among menopausal women. This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Ayurvedic multimodal management in Sandhigatavata and to provide better options to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). In present clinical trial, 50 patients of Sandhigatavata have been registered and have been given Snehana, Svedana, Mriduvirechana, Matrabasti, and Jalaukavacharana, along with oral medications like Yogaraja Guggulu and Ashvagandha Churna. This multimodal therapy is being used in P.D. Patel Ayurved Hospital, Nadiad, since years, providing good relief to patients with Sandhigatavata. The results have been analyzed statistically by using the Student paired‘t’ test. The therapy showed highly significant (P < 0.001) beneficial effect on the clinical features of Sandhigatavata. On overall effect of therapy, 4% of the patients were relieved completely, while 24% have shown marked improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 22% mild improvement. Results of follow-up showed that marked improvement decreased, but moderate improvement was steady. Continuing the study on a larger number of patients, with inclusion of more objective parameters to get better conclusions is suggested at the end of the study.
Matrabasti; osteoarthritis; Sandhigatavata; Snehana; Svedana; Upanaha
According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimation, 10% of the global population has some form of disability due to different causes; in India, it is 3.8% of the population. Nearly 15-20% of the total physically handicapped children suffer from Cerebral Palsy (CP). For India, the estimated incidence is around 3/1000 live births; however, being a developing country, the expected actual figure may be much higher. Despite the advancement in modern technology and improved neonatal care, stagnant or increasing incidence of CP has been observed, which is of great concern. As far as management or preventive aspect is concerned, no satisfactory criteria have been developed to date. The present study is based on a positive hypothesis for the efficacy of Ayurvedic treatment. The study was carried out in 16 patients, 8 in each group, namely group A (Shashtika Shali Pinda Sweda externally and Samvardhana Ghrita internally) and group B (Samvardhana Ghrita internally) for 35 days duration. In group A, moderate improvement, mild improvement, and no improvement were observed in 50%, 37.5% and 12.5% of patients respectively. In group B, moderate improvement and mild improvement were observed in 75% and 25% of the patients respectively. Statistical significance of results on selected criteria showed the efficacy of the selected Ayurvedic treatment modality in relieving the signs and symptoms of CP. Although it is incurable, Ayurvedic science can provide a better direction by improving the quality of life of children with CP with better life expectancy.
Cerebral palsy; Samvardhana Ghrita; Shashtika Shali Pinda Sweda
Bhaishajya Kaala (time of drug administration) is an important principle to be considered while treating a disease. Still hardly a handful of physicians are seen, who account for this. To highlight its imperial role in Chikitsa, there is an immense necessity to analyze this concept, which is the need of the hour. Bhaishajya Kaala is mainly explained in relation with Bala of Roga, Rogi, particular Dosha, Dooshya, and various other factors. The comprehensive understanding of this concept involves so many questions as, why there is a difference in the number of Aushdha Kaala? What is the logic behind their indications as well as contraindications? The present paper focuses on the above points to find out the convincing answers.
Bhaishajya Kaala; Bhojana Kaala; Roga; Rogi Bala
Sheetada is the early stage of periodontal diseases. This occurs due to negligence of oral hygiene, changing life-style, habits, and addictions. It is Kapha Rakta Pradhana Vyadhi. In modern dentistry papillary or marginal gingivitis can be correlated with Sheetada, on the basis of similarities in symptoms, involvement of anatomical structure, etiology and prognosis. The epidemiological studies conducted by American Academy of Periodontology shows that gingivitis of varying severities is nearly universal. It is estimated that over 80% of the world's population suffers from gingivitis. In this clinical study, 106 patients were registered among them 103 completed the treatment and were randomly divided by lottery method into two groups. In Group-A, Dashana Samskara paste local application on gums and in Group-B, Dashana Samskara Choorna Pratisarana on gums was given. After enrollment of the patients in the study cardinal symptoms of Sheetada (gingivitis) such as, Raktasrava, Krishnata, Prakledata, Mriduta, Mukhadaurgandhya, and also the objective criteria such as oral hygiene index, Gingival Index (GI-S), and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI-S) were studied before and after the treatment. While considering comparative effect on subjective parameters such as Raktasrava, Dantamamsa Shiryamanata, Shotha and Chalata statistically significant results were obtained in Group-A than Group-B. In objective parameters such as, GI-S and GBI-S also showed statistically significant results in Group-A. Observations in follow-up study confirmed that the recurrence rate in the Group-Awas significantly lesser than the Group-B.
Dashana Samskara Choorna; gingivitis; oral hygiene; Pratisarana; Sheetada
Considering high prevalence and the need to look for alternative medicine, essential hypertension was screened in light of Vata–Pitta Pradhana Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara as mentioned by Acharya Charaka. Comparing the etiological factors, symptomatology, and complications with Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara with that of essential hypertension, a striking similarity was revealed. To prove the practical approach of management of Vata–Pitta Pradhana Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara, a randomized open clinical trial on 33 uncomplicated subjects of essential hypertension was conducted. The subjects were allotted in two groups, viz. (Group A) Virechana group having 16 cases who underwent Virechana Karma by Trivrita, Aragvadha, Eranda Taila, and Draksha Kwatha as Sahapana; and (Group B) Basti group consisting of 17 cases who were administered Dashmoola Kala Basti in which Niruha with Dashmoola Kwatha and Anuvasana with Dashmoola Taila was done. Patients of both the groups were followed by Shamana Chikitsa (Arjunadi Ghanavati). The overall effect of the therapies on systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed that Virechana proved better relief (43.75%) as compared to Basti (29.41%). The response was encouraging and has created scope for further studies.
Basti Karma; essential hypertension; Raktapradoshaja Vikara; Virechana Karma
Ayurveda prescribes daily and seasonal regimen in maintaining good health. Measures in the preservation of health have been described considering one's own Prakriti, Satva, Vayas, Bala, Agni, Ojus, season, and so on. Depending on the relative predominance of Doshas in various constitutions and seasons, certain regimens have been prescribed. The present study was done to assess the lipid profile in 54 healthy volunteers. It was observed from the present data that winter month is one of the potential risk factors for cardiovascular diseases because more lipid profile level was observed during winter. Among the constitutions, Kapha and Pitta Prakriti are more vulnerable for cardiovascular diseases because more lipid profile level is observed in these constitutions during winter.
Ayurveda; diet; lifestyle; lipid profile; Prakriti; season
Description of Vandhyatva is available in most of the Ayurvedic classics, including Nidana (diagnosis), Samprapti (etiopathogenesis), Lakshana (symptomatology), Bheda (types) and Chikitsa (treatment). In current study, efforts have been made to study the effect of Nasya and Matra Basti on anovulation (Beeja Dushti). Ovulation is under the control of Vata. Narayana Taila is attributed for its effect in Vandhyatva. 24 patients of female infertility having anovulatory factor, being diagnosed by Trans-Vaginal Sonography (TVS) for 2 consecutive cycles were divided in two groups. Patients in Group A (n = 12) administered the drug through Nasya and in Group B (n = 12) through Matra Basti. Ovulation occurred 36.36% of patients in group A and 66.16% of patients group B. Matra Basti showed better results than Nasya group on anovulation.
Anovulation; infertility; Matra Basti; Narayana Taila; Nasya; Vandhyatva
According to Ayurveda, Kati Shoola is a disease with pain in lumbar region. Lumbar spondylolisthesis, anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column in relation to the vertebrae below, is one of the common causes. Current case study was carried out at Ayurveda Teaching hospital, Borella, to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment regimen used by Sri Lankan traditional physician family “Weerasinghe.” A 59-year-old female with a 9-month history of lumbar spondylolisthesis was treated with this regimen. The patient had progressive pain in left lower back, right and left buttocks, and difficulty in bending forward over 5°. X-ray of lumbo sacral region indicated that patient was suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. She was treated for 65 days with four treatment packages consisting of 13 prepared medicines. The response to the treatment was recorded and therapeutic effects were evaluated through symptomatic relief. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced and degree of anterior flexion increased from 5° to 90°. However, X-rays indicated that the patient was still suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. This regimen is effective in successfully treating Kati Shoola (lumbar spondylolisthesis) by helping to reduce the symptoms and improving the degree of anterior flexion.
Kati Shoola; lumbar spondylolisthesis; traditional medicine
Launaea sarmentosa (Willd) Schultz-Bip.ex Kuntze (Asteraceae), locally known as Kulhafila in the Maldives, is a creeping herb, native to tropical Indian coastlines. According to anecdotal evidence from locals in the Maldives, the roots of this plant are used as an ingredient of a popular medicinal preparation (Hilibeys) taken by mothers after childbirth. It is also used in various other ailments in different parts of the Maldives, as well as in India. So far, there has been no scientific documentation of this plant. The only source of information available is held by natives and traditional medical practitioners. The present study was conducted on the root of L. sarmentosa for its pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India (API) parameters. The microscopic characteristics of the root show prismatic crystals, multiseriate medullary rays, laticiferous cells, and pitted parenchyma. Qualitative analyses, such as loss on drying, ash value, pH, etc., were conducted. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, tannin, steroids, etc.
Asteraceae; Kulhafila; Launaea sarmentosa; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry