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1.  Predicting tobacco use among high school students by using the global youth tobacco survey in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):122-129.
OBJECTIVE:
To identify the predictors that lead to cigarette smoking among high school students by utilizing the global youth tobacco survey in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school students (grades 10–12) in Riyadh, KSA, between April 24, 2010, and June 16, 2010.
RESULTS:
The response rate of the students was 92.17%. The percentage of high school students who had previously smoked cigarettes, even just 1–2 puffs, was 43.3% overall. This behavior was more common among male students (56.4%) than females (31.3%). The prevalence of students who reported that they are currently smoking at least one cigarette in the past 30 days was 19.5% (31.3% and 8.9% for males and females, respectively). “Ever smoked” status was associated with male gender (OR = 2.88, confidence interval [CI]: 2.28–3.63), parent smoking (OR = 1.70, CI: 1.25–2.30) or other member of the household smoking (OR = 2.11, CI: 1.59–2.81) who smoked, closest friends who smoked (OR = 8.17, CI: 5.56–12.00), and lack of refusal to sell cigarettes (OR = 5.68, CI: 2.09–15.48).
CONCLUSION:
Several predictors of cigarette smoking among high school students were identified.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.98843
PMCID: PMC3425042  PMID: 22924068
Adolescents; cigarettes; Saudi Arabia; tobacco
2.  Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(Suppl 1):S56-S61.
Chronic lung diseases are common causes of pulmonary hypertension. It ranks second after the left heart disease. Both obstructive and restrictive lung diseases are know to cause pulmonary hypertension.
The pathophysiology of the disease is complex, and includes factors affecting the blood vessels, airways, and lung parenchyma. Hypoxia and the inhalation of toxic materials are another contributing factors. Recent guidelines have further clarified the association between pulmonary hypertension and chronic lung disease and made general guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management.
In this article, we will provide a detailed revision about the new classification and give general recommendations about the management of pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.134030
PMCID: PMC4114277  PMID: 25076998
Hypoxia; lung diseases; pulmonary hypertension; chronic obstructive airways disease; pulmonary fibrosis; Saudi association for pulmonary hypertension guidelines
3.  Saudi experience in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension; the outcome of PAH therapy with the exclusion of chronic parenteral prostacyclin 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2015;10(3):204-211.
AIMS:
The purpose of this study is to present our center's experience in managing patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The main objective is to describe patients' management profile and treatment outcome.
METHODS:
This study presents the results from a single pulmonary hypertension (PH) specialized center in Saudi Arabia. Both incidence and prevalence cases are included. We have previously reported the clinical and physiological characteristics at the time of diagnosis for this cohort of patients. In this study, we describe the clinical management and the outcome of therapy in the same cohort, who were prospectively followed for a mean of 22 months.
RESULTS:
A total of 107 patients were identified as having PAH. At the time of enrollment, 56.1% of patients were in modified New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA FC) III and 16.8% were in IV. Phosphdiesterase-5 inhibitor was the most commonly used target therapy (82.2%) followed by endothelin receptors antagonist (74.4%). Only five patients (4.7%) were candidate to use calcium channel blockers. Seventy-nine patients (73.8 %) received a combination nonparenteral target therapy. Thirty-one patients (28.9%) died during the follow-up period. Modified NYHA FC III and IV patients, portopulmonary hypertension, heritable PAH, and PAH associated with connective tissue diseases had the highest mortality rate (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION:
Our patients are detected at advanced stage of the disease, and thus the mortality is still unacceptably high. Advanced functional class at presentation and certain disease subgroups are associated with increased mortality.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.160842
PMCID: PMC4518352
Mortality; prostacyclin; pulmonary arterial hypertension; Saudi association for pulmonary hypertension; target therapy
4.  Will any future increase in cigarette price reduce smoking in Saudi Arabia? 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(3):154-157.
CONTEXT:
In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette's price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption.
AIMS:
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013.
METHODS:
We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and personal opinion on the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. The questionnaire was distributed in public places such as malls and posted on famous Saudi athlete media's twitter accounts.
RESULTS:
Among the 2057 included responses, 802 (39%) were current smokers. The smokers’ population constituted of 746 (92%) males, of which 546 (68%) had a monthly income equal or greater to 800 US dollars, and 446 (55%) were aged between 21 and 30 years. Multivariate analyses of the risk factors for smoking showed that male gender and older age were associated with greater risk. Despite the current low prices of 2.67 US dollars, 454 smokers (56%) thought that cigarette prices are expensive. When asked about the price of cigarettes that will lead to smoking cessation, 443 smokers (55%) expected that a price of 8.27 US dollars and more per pack will make them quit.
CONCLUSIONS:
Increasing the price of popular cigarettes pack from 2.67 US dollars to 8.27 US dollars is expected to lead to smoking cessation in a large number of smokers in the Saudi population.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.134070
PMCID: PMC4073572  PMID: 24987474
Cessation; cigarette; price increase; Saudi Arabia; smokers; smoking; tobacco
5.  Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: General management for pulmonary hypertension 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(Suppl 1):S74-S78.
Treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients is challenging and should only be initiated after a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Such treatment should ideally be done in specialized centers with full capability for hemodynamic measurements, having access to a broad range of PAH therapies, and adequate experience in the management of critically ill patients.
The following discussion is intended to review the general measures and the non-specific (supportive) therapy used in managing PH patients, while the specific therapy will be discussed in a subsequent different article.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.134041
PMCID: PMC4114268  PMID: 25077001
Pulmonary hypertension; general measures; supportive therapy; Saudi association for pulmonary hypertension guidelines
6.  Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Portopulmonary hypertension 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(Suppl 1):S42-S46.
Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is defined as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) complicated by portal hypertension, with or without advanced hepatic disease. Significant percentage of patients with cirrhotic liver disease has high cardiac output and subsequently elevated pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP). However, patients with POPH develop a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), which is generally lower than that observed in other forms of PAH.
The prognosis of untreated patients with POPH is very poor and the outcome of liver transplant (LT) in those patients is determined by the degree of severity of the associated pulmonary hemodynamics.
In this narrative review, we describe the clinical presentation of POPH, the pathobiology, and the clinical implication of pulmonary hemodynamics. We also provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosic and management approaches of POPH.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.134021
PMCID: PMC4114279  PMID: 25076996
Liver transplant; portal hypertension; portopulmonary hypertension; pulmonary arterial hypertension; vasodilator therapy; Saudi Association for Pulmonary Hypertension Guidelines
7.  Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Challenges in managing pulmonary hypertension in the developing countries 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(Suppl 1):S127-S130.
There is scant published data about pulmonary hypertension (PH) from the developing countries. True prevalence of the disease, its biology, etiology and response to treatment are not well known, and they are likely to be somewhat different from that of the developed countries.
In this review, we will discuss the main challenges for managing PH in developing countries and propose real-life recommendations to deal with such difficulties.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.134059
PMCID: PMC4114281  PMID: 25076991
Developing world; pulmonary hypertension; Saudi association for pulmonary hypertension guidelines
8.  Risk factors, management and outcomes of patients admitted with near fatal asthma to a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(1):33-38.
RATIONALE:
Near-fatal asthma (NFA) has not been well studied in Saudi Arabia. We evaluated NFA risk factors in asthmatics admitted to a tertiary-care hospital and described NFA management and outcomes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This was a retrospective study of NFA patients admitted to an ICU in Riyadh (2006-2010). NFA was defined as a severe asthma attack requiring intubation. To evaluate NFA risk factors, randomly selected patients admitted to the ward for asthma exacerbation were used as controls. Collected data included demographics, information on prior asthma control and various NFA treatments and outcomes.
RESULTS:
Thirty NFA cases were admitted to the ICU in the five-year period. Compared to controls (N = 120), NFA patients were younger (37.5 ± 19.9 vs. 50.3 ± 23.1 years, P = 0.004) and predominantly males (70.0% vs. 41.7%, P = 0.005) and used less inhaled steroids/long-acting ß2-agonists combination (13.6% vs. 38.7% P = 0.024. Most (73.3%) NFA cases presented in the cool months (October-March). On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.99, P = 0.015) and the number of ED visits in the preceding year (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00-1.55) were associated with NFA. Rescue NFA management included ketamine (50%) and theophylline (19%) infusions. NFA outcomes included: neuromyopathy (23%), mechanical ventilation duration = 6.4 ± 4.7 days, tracheostomy (13%) and mortality (0%). Neuromuscular blockade duration was associated with neuromyopathy (OR, 3.16 per one day increment; 95% CI, 1.27-7.83).
CONCLUSIONS:
In our study, NFA risk factors were younger age and higher number of ED visits. NFA had significant morbidity. Reducing neuromuscular blockade duration during ventilator management may decrease neuromyopathy risk.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.124441
PMCID: PMC3912685  PMID: 24551016
Asthma; critical illness; mechanical ventilation; neuromyopathy
10.  Status of respiratory care profession in Saudi Arabia: A national survey 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2015;10(1):55-60.
BACKGROUND:
Respiratory care (RC) is an allied health profession that involves assessing and treating patients who have pulmonary diseases. Research indicates that respiratory therapists’ (RT's) involvement in caring for patients with respiratory disorders improves important outcome measures. In Kingdome of Saudi Arabia (KSA), RC has been practiced by RTs for more than 30 years.
OBJECTIVE:
We sought to investigate the status of the RC workforce in Saudi Arabia in terms of demographic distribution, number, education, and RC service coverage.
METHODS:
We used a specially designed survey to collect data. A list of 411 working hospitals in KSA was obtained. All hospitals were contacted to inquire if RC is practiced by RTs. Data were collected from hospitals that employ RTs.
RESULTS:
Only 88 hospitals, 21.4% of total hospitals in the country, have RTs. Out of the 244 Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals, only 31 hospitals (12.7%) employ RTs. There are 1,477 active RTs in KSA. Twenty-five percent of them, or 371, are Saudis. The majority of the RT workforce (60%) work for non-MOH government hospitals, and almost half the total RTs work in Riyadh province. About 60% of RTs work in critical care settings. RC coverage of critical care was 44.5% of ideal. The overall RT-to-ICU bed ratio was 1:11. The ratio was 1:9 for non-MOH government hospitals, and 1:20 for MOH hospitals.
CONCLUSIONS:
We report the first insightful data on RC workforce in KSA. These data should be used by educational institutions and health policy makers to plan better RC coverage in the country.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.146878
PMCID: PMC4286847  PMID: 25593609
Respiratory care; respiratory therapy; Saudi Arabia
11.  Hemoptysis due to pulmonary pseudosequestration secondary to gastro-pulmonary fistula after a revisional bariatric operation 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(4):242-244.
We report the case of a patient with a history of a complicated revisional bariatric operation who developed a lung pseudosequestration secondary to a gastro-pulmonary fistula. As the patient presented with recurrent hemoptysis, she was initially submitted to embolization of the aberrant vessels and later to a definite operation, which consisted on a diversion of the gastric fistula into a Roux-en-Y intestinal loop. It is an exceptional case about late complications of bariatric surgery, and it underlines the importance of discarding these complications even when the clinical manifestations affect another anatomic region different from the operated abdomen.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.140141
PMCID: PMC4166073  PMID: 25276245
Bariatric surgery complications; gastrobronchial fistula; gastric mucocele; lung pseudosequestration
12.  Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Intensive care management of pulmonary hypertension 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(Suppl 1):S121-S126.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) may be due to preexisting pulmonary vascular lung disease, liver disease, or cardiac diseases. PH also may be caused by critical illnesses, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute left ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary embolism, or may occur after cardiac or thoracic surgery.
Regardless of the underlying cause of PH, the final common pathway for hemodynamic deterioration and death is RV failure, which is the most challenging aspect of patient management. Therapy is thus aimed at acutely relieving RV overload by decreasing PVR and reversing RV failure with pulmonary vasodilators and inotropes.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.134056
PMCID: PMC4114270  PMID: 25076990
Hemodynamics; intensive care unit; pulmonary hypertension; Saudi association for pulmonary hypertension guidelines
13.  Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(Suppl 1):S62-S66.
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is categorized as group IV in the WHO classification for pulmonary hypertension. The disease requires a very low index of suspicion for identification and needs a special diagnostic approach utilizing clinical, radiological, and hemodynamic tools. As CTEPH is potentially curable, all efforts should be consumed to reach the accurate diagnosis and subsequently evaluated for operability.
Although pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the only curative tool so far, recent updates concerning medical and interventional therapy have made significant advances in inoperable patients.
In this review, we provide a detailed discussion on diagnostic algorithm, surgical operability criteria, PEA, and the medical therapy.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.134037
PMCID: PMC4114273  PMID: 25076999
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; endarterectomy; riociguat; Saudi association for pulmonary hypertension guidelines
14.  Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(Suppl 1):S21-S25.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) with intracardiac/extracardiac shunts is an important etiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The majority of children with congenital cardiac shunts do not develop advanced pulmonary vasculopathy, as surgical repair of the anomalies is now performed early in life. However, if not repaired early, some defects will inevitably lead to pulmonary vascular disease (truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great arteries associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrioventricular septal defects remarkably in Down syndrome, large, nonrestrictive VSDs, patent ductus arteriosus and related anomalies). The majority of patients are now assigned to surgery based on noninvasive evaluation only. PAH becomes a concern (requiring advanced diagnostic procedures) in about 2-10% of them. In adults with CHD, the prevalence of advanced pulmonary vasculopathy (Eisenmenger syndrome) is around 4-12%.[1]
This article will discuss the diagnostic and management approach for PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD).
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.134015
PMCID: PMC4114280  PMID: 25076993
Pulmonary arterial hypertension; congenital heart disease; saudi association for pulmonary hypertension guidelines
16.  Sleep medicine services in Saudi Arabia: The 2013 national survey 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(1):45-47.
BACKGROUND:
We conducted this national survey to quantitatively assess sleep medicine services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to identify obstacles that specialists and hospitals face, precluding the establishment of this service.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A self-administered questionnaire was designed to collect the following: General information regarding each hospital, information regarding sleep medicine facilities (SFs), the number of beds, the number of sleep studies performed and obstacles to the establishment of SFs. The questionnaire and a cover letter explaining the study objectives were mailed and distributed by respiratory care practitioners to 32 governmental hospitals and 18 private hospitals and medical centers in the KSA.
RESULTS:
The survey identified 18 SFs in the KSA. The estimated per capita number of beds/year/100,000 people was 0.11 and the per capita polysomnography (PSG) rate was 18.0 PSG/year/100,000 people. The most important obstacles to the progress of sleep medicine in the KSA were a lack of trained sleep technologists and a lack of sleep medicine specialists.
CONCLUSION:
The sleep medicine services provided in the KSA have improved since the 2005 survey; however, these services are still below the level of service provided in developed countries. Organized efforts are needed to overcome the identified obstacles and challenges to the progress of sleep medicine in the KSA.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.124444
PMCID: PMC3912688  PMID: 24551019
Polysomnography; quantitative assessment; sleep disorders center; sleep medicine service; sleep technologists
17.  Author's reply 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2013;8(2):127-128.
PMCID: PMC3667444  PMID: 23741279
18.  Author reply 
PMCID: PMC3667446  PMID: 23741281
19.  Saudi regulations for the accreditation of sleep medicine physicians and technologists 
The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.105710
PMCID: PMC3573555  PMID: 23440260
Accreditation; licensing; sleep medicine; sleep technology; technicians; technologists
20.  The role of asthma guidelines in achieving current control and reducing future risk 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(4):173-174.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.102143
PMCID: PMC3506097  PMID: 23189094
21.  Authors’ reply 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):171-172.
PMCID: PMC3425055  PMID: 22924081
22.  Drug prescription pattern for asthma among nigerian doctors in general practice: A cross-sectional survey 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(2):78-83.
BACKGROUND:
A wide range of medications are now available for the treatment of asthma and selection of the optimal treatment combination of agents is essential.
OBJECTIVES:
This study was designed to evaluate a self-reported drug prescribing pattern for asthma among Nigerian doctors in general practice.
METHODS:
It was a cross-sectional survey conducted among general practitioners in six states of Nigeria.
RESULTS:
For acute severe asthma, 75.9% of the doctors prescribed intravenous methylxanthines, which was combined with oral or inhaled short-acting β2 agonists (SABA) by 56.3% of them. Systemic steroids were prescribed mainly via the intravenous route by 58.8% of them. Aberrant drugs such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and mucolytics were prescribed by 25.6% of them. For long-term, follow-up treatment of asthma, oral steroids, and oral SABA were commonly prescribed, while inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/LABA (long acting beta agonists) were infrequently prescribed. Aberrant drugs such as analgesics, antimalaria, and antihistamines were prescribed by 22.8% of them. About 48% of the doctors had never attended any form of update training on asthma management, whereas, only 16.3% attended update training on asthma within the last year preceding this study. Awareness of international guidelines on asthma treatment was poor among them with only 16.4% being able to mention any correct guideline on asthma management.
CONCLUSION:
The poor anti-asthma prescribing behavior among these doctors is associated with a low level of participation at update training on asthma management and poor awareness of asthma guidelines. The Nigerian Medical Association and the Nigerian Thoracic Society should urgently address these problems.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.94524
PMCID: PMC3339208  PMID: 22558012
Asthma; drug prescription; general practitioners; Nigeria
23.  Author’s reply 
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.69120
PMCID: PMC2954383
25.  Bocavirus viremia 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2015;10(3):219.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.160848
PMCID: PMC4518357

Results 1-25 (503)