Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha.
The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug.
Materials and Methods
Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data.
Result and Conclusion:
Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.
Antidiabetic formulations; efficacy; Nāga bhasma; safety
Kūpīpakva Rasāyana is a category of Rasauṣadhis (herbomineral medicines) prepared by unique pharmaceutical process explained in Rasaśāstra. Svarṇa Vanga (SV) is one such medicament indicated mainly in diseases such as Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Śvāsa (respiratory disorders), Pradara (menorrhagia), and as a Vrṣya (aphrodisiac).
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to establish the standard manufacturing process for SV and analyze its organoleptic and physicochemical properties.
Materials and Methods:
Śodhita Vaṅga was melted and triturated with purified Pārada (mercury) to form an amalgam. The amalgam so formed was mixed with Saindhava Lavaṇa and levigated with Nimbu Svarasa (Citrus medica Var.) and washed until blackness of the mixture disappeared. On drying, śuddha Gandhaka (Sulfur) and Navasadara (Ammonium chloride) were added and ground into a fine powder. The powder thus formed was filled in the Kupī and processed in an electrical muffle furnace for 18 h. On cooling, the product formed at the bottom of the Kūpī was collected. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of SV were analyzed and tabulated.
Results and Conclusion:
SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana. It requires Mṛdu (<250 C) and Madhyama Agni (250-500 C) for a period of 9 h each to prepare SV with 42.9% yield and having 63.2 and 34.4% tin and sulfur, respectively.
Ayurveda; Kupipakva Rasayana; standardization; Swarna Vanga
The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-scorpion venom (ASV) property of Andrographis paniculata in comparison with anti-redscorpion venom serum and this study aimed to determine its combined effect with anti-redscorpion venom serum.
Materials and Methods:
Ethanolic extract of the plant AP was obtained using soxhlet apparatus. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used. Lyophilized venom sample of Mesobuthus tamulus and Lyophilized monovalent enzyme refined immunoglobulin anti-scorpion venom serum (ASV) was used. Using lethal dose of scorpion venom (25.12μg/g), the venom neutralizing ability of plant extract (1 g/kg) and ASV individually as well as in combination was studied using in vivo and in vitro methods. Mean survival time, protection fold and percentage survival of animals over the period of 24 h were the parameters used.
Results were analyzed using Student's t-test.
Ethanolic extract of AP (1 g/kg) showed some protective effect against scorpion venom. ASV was found more effective than plant extract. But, when plant extract and ASV were used in combination, potency of ASV was found to be increased both in vivo and in vitro.
Present study demonstrates that, both plant extract and ASV have their own scorpion venom neutralising ability in vivo and in vitro, but their combination is most effective in venom neutralizing ability.
Andrographis paniculata; anti-scorpion venom; lethal dose; Mesobuthus tamulus
In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens.
The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens.
Materials and Methods:
Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification.
Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens.
Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study.
16S rRNA; herbs; injury; traditional medicine; Tridax; wound healing
It is a common notion among people in India that herbal or Ayurvedic products are safe and do not produce any adverse effect. This is not true since Ayurveda has evaded many adverse effects which occur by combination of herbs. This axiom is potentiated by our report that occurs in the form of skin rashes. A 20-year-old South Indian female of Pittakapha prakṛti (constitution) after beginning therapy with Aragvādādi kaṣāyam (ARK) (poly-herbal formulation) and Syrup Talekt (poly-herbal patent formulation) for the treatment of recurrent incidence of abscess. Rash disappeared after stopping the suspected drug and treatment with Vibhītakī kaṣāyam (decoction of Terminilia bellarica) and Śatadhauta ghṛtam. Possible and probable (score 6) were the causality according to WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo's Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale and grouped under type-B reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of skin rashes which seen after administration of ARK and Syrup Talekt. This report highlights the need of implementation of pharmacovigilance center in the hospital level and additional research in the field of skin toxicity of ARK and Syrup Talekt.
Abscess; Aragwadadi kashaya; Ayurveda; skin rashes; Talekt
Croton tiglium seeds, known as Jamālgoṭa in Hindi, Marathi, and Urdu is well-known for its toxicity (severe purgative action). In Ayurvedic texts, the plant is known as Kumbhinī and is used for the treatment of constipation after Śodhana (detoxification process) of the seeds with Godugdha (cow milk).
Material and Methods:
In the present study, C. tiglium seeds were purified with cow milk as reported in Ayurvedic classics. Phorbol esters equivalent to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and crotonic acid contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography method in the seeds of C. tiglium before and after the purification process.
The content of the phorbol ester equivalent to PMA in unpurified and purified sample was found to be 5.2 mg/100 g and 1.8 mg/100 g of dried seeds of C. tiglium, respectively. The quantity of crotonic acid in unpurified seeds of C. tiglium was found to be 0.102 mg/100 g of dried seeds while it was absent in the purified seed extract of C. tiglium.
The toxicity of C. tiglium seeds may be due to the presence of phorbol esters and crotonic acid along with other constituents. These constituents are oil soluble and may be removed by cow milk during the process of Śodhana. Reduction in the level of these constituents after the purification decreases the toxicity of C. tiglium seeds. Reduction in the oily content from the seeds of C. tiglium during the purification process is also supported by the results obtained from the physiochemical parameters.
Croton tiglium; crotonic acid; phorbol ester; purification
Self – rating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI).
Materials and Methods:
The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore.
This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI.
The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity.
Tridosha; prakriti; vāta; pitta; kapha; Ayurveda
Malvastrum coromandelianum belongs to the family Malvaceae, commonly known as false mallow. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that it is used to treat various disorders. Pharmacological screening revealed that the plant possess antinoceceptive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibacterial activities. Lack of standardization parameters for herbal raw material is a great hindrance in ensuring the purity of M. coromandelianum. The present work was taken up to with a focus to set standardization parameters for M. coromandelianum.
Materials and Methods:
The plant was subjected to macroscopic and microscopic studies. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value and extractive value were determined by standard procedures. Different extracts were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated. Plant was subjected for high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis using standard chromatographic procedure.
The microscopic characteristics showed the dorsiventral nature of leaf. Two types of trichomes were observed: Covering, unicellular, uniseriate, and bi-cellular head sessile glandular. Vascular bundle was surrounded by spongy parenchyma. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins, and carbohydrates. The phenolic and flavonoid content estimation revealed the presence of appreciable amount of these constituents, while HPTLC analysis showed the presence of β-sitosterol in petroleum ether extract.
These findings will be useful for the establishment of standardization parameters for M. coromandelianum.
β-sitosterol; high performance thin layer chromatography analysis; Malvastrum coromandelianum; phytochemical screening; total flavonoid; total phenolic
Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) is a diffuse herb with prickly stem, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and one in the group of daśamūla (group of ten herbs) herbs commonly used drug in Ayurveda.
In continuation of search for potent natural anti-inflammatory agents, the present research work was planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of S. xanthocarpum whole plant.
Settings and Design:
The ethanol extract was evaluated at dose 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg p.o. in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Using pharmacological screening models carrageenan induced rat paw edema, histamine induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Data obtained was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Dunnett test, P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.
Acute treatment didn’t show anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and histamine induced paw edema. However, administration of 100 mg/kg p.o for 7 day reduced the granuloma formation in cotton pellet granuloma model.
Present results support the traditional use of plant for anti-inflammatory activity. In brief, the results provide scientific pharmacological basis for the therapeutic use of S. xanthocarpum.
Anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; cotton pellet granuloma; histamine; Solanum xanthocarpum
Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a small branched, hispidly pubescent, prostate annual herb, commonly known as laghududhika or choti-dudhi. The leaves, seeds and fresh juice of whole plant are used in worm infections, as stimulant, astringent. It is also used in bowel complaints and in many more diseases therapeutically. The present work is an extensive review of published literature concerning phytochemical and pharmacological potential of E. thymifolia. Data was searched and designed using various review modalities manually and using electronic search engines with reference to all aspects of E. thymifolia and was arranged chronologically. Complete information of the plant has been collected from the various books and journals since the last 32 years, internet databases, etc., were searched. Compiled data reflects the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the plant. This will be helpful for researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be explored and in scientific use of the plant for its wide variety of traditional therapeutic claims and also as to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional activities.
Anti-herpes simplex virus; antihyperglycemic; anti-inflammatory; antinociceptive; phytochemical
Seed of Guñjā (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guñjā in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), Śotha (edema), Kṛmi (helminthes), Kuṣṭha (skin diseases), Kaṇḍu (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific Śodhana (purification) procedures.
To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and Śhodhita (Processed) Guñjā seeds
Guñjā seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), Kāñjī (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method.
Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guñjā exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the Śodhita Guñjā seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the Śodhita Guñjā seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations
The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and śodhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts.
Abrin; Abrus precatorius Linn; anti-bacterial; Guñjā; Śhodhana
Natural products with medicinal value are gradually gaining importance in clinical research due to their well-known property of no side effects as compared to drugs. Tinospora cordifolia commonly named as “Guduchi” is known for its immense application in the treatment of various diseases in the traditional ayurvedic literature. Recently the discovery of active components from the plant and their biological function in disease control has led to active interest in the plant across the globe. Our present study in this review encompasses (i) the genetic diversity of the plant and (ii) active components isolated from the plant and their biological role in disease targeting. The future scope of the review remains in exploiting the biochemical and signaling pathways affected by the compounds isolated from Tinospora so as to enable new and effective formulation in disease eradication.
Ayurveda; diabetes; natural product
Metallic Bhasmas are highly valued and have their own importance in Ayurvedic formulations. To testify the Bhasmas various parameters have been told in Rasashastra classics. Tamra Bhasma (TB) with its different properties is used in the treatment of various diseases is quiet famous among the Ayurvedic physicians (Vaidyas).
The present study was carried out to set up the quality control parameters for the TB by making the use of classical tests along with advanced analytical tools.
Settings and Design:
Copper wire taken for the preparation of Bhasma was first analyzed for its copper content and then subjected to Shodhana, Marana and Amrutikarana procedures as per the classical references. Final product complied with all the classical parameters like Rekhapurnatwa, Varitaratwa etc.
Materials and Methods:
After complying with these tests TB was analyzed by advanced analytical techniques like particle size distribution (PSD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductive coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP).
PSD analysis of TB showed volumetric mean diameter of 28.70 μm, 50% of the material was below 18.40 μm size. Particle size less than 2μm were seen in SEM. 56.24 wt % of copper and 23.06 wt % of sulphur was found in ICP-AES. Heavy metals like cadmium, selenium were not detected while others like arsenic, lead and mercury were present in traces.
These observations could be specified as the quality control parameters conforming to all the classical tests under the Bhasma Pariksha.
Bhasma Pariksha; copper; Rasaushadhi; Tamra; quality control
Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.
Botanical pharmacognosy; ethnobotany; Gmelina arborea; Gmelina asiatica; pharmacognosy; root; stem