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1.  Assessing Individual Differences in Genome-Wide Gene Expression in Human Whole Blood: Reliability Over Four Hours and Stability Over 10 Months 
Studying the causes and correlates of natural variation in gene expression in healthy populations assumes that individual differences in gene expression can be reliably and stably assessed across time. However, this is yet to be established. We examined 4-hour test–retest reliability and 10 month test–retest stability of individual differences in gene expression in ten 12-year-old children. Blood was collected on four occasions: 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. on Day 1 and 10 months later at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. Total RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix-U133 plus 2.0 arrays. For each probeset, the correlation across individuals between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. on Day 1 estimates test–retest reliability. We identified 3,414 variable and abundantly expressed probesets whose 4-hour test-retest reliability exceeded .70, a conventionally accepted level of reliability, which we had 80% power to detect. Of the 3,414 reliable probesets, 1,752 were also significantly reliable 10 months later. We assessed the long-term stability of individual differences in gene expression by correlating the average expression level for each probe-set across the two 4-hour assessments on Day 1 with the average level of each probe-set across the two 4-hour assessments 10 months later. 1,291 (73.7%) of the 1,752 probe-sets that reliably detected individual differences across 4 hours on two occasions, 10 months apart, also stably detected individual differences across 10 months. Heritability, as estimated from the MZ twin intraclass correlations, is twice as high for the 1,752 reliable probesets versus all present probesets on the array (0.68 vs 0.34), and is even higher (0.76) for the 1,291 reliable probesets that are also stable across 10 months. The 1,291 probesets that reliably detect individual differences from a single peripheral blood collection and stably detect individual differences over 10 months are promising targets for research on the causes (e.g., eQTLs) and correlates (e.g., psychopathology) of individual differences in gene expression.
PMCID: PMC3819565  PMID: 19653838
blood; human; individual differences; gene expression; reliability; genomewide
2.  A data-driven approach to preprocessing Illumina 450K methylation array data 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:293.
As the most stable and experimentally accessible epigenetic mark, DNA methylation is of great interest to the research community. The landscape of DNA methylation across tissues, through development and in disease pathogenesis is not yet well characterized. Thus there is a need for rapid and cost effective methods for assessing genome-wide levels of DNA methylation. The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip is a very useful addition to the available methods for DNA methylation analysis but its complex design, incorporating two different assay methods, requires careful consideration. Accordingly, several normalization schemes have been published. We have taken advantage of known DNA methylation patterns associated with genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), in addition to the performance of SNP genotyping assays present on the array, to derive three independent metrics which we use to test alternative schemes of correction and normalization. These metrics also have potential utility as quality scores for datasets.
The standard index of DNA methylation at any specific CpG site is β = M/(M + U + 100) where M and U are methylated and unmethylated signal intensities, respectively. Betas (βs) calculated from raw signal intensities (the default GenomeStudio behavior) perform well, but using 11 methylomic datasets we demonstrate that quantile normalization methods produce marked improvement, even in highly consistent data, by all three metrics. The commonly used procedure of normalizing betas is inferior to the separate normalization of M and U, and it is also advantageous to normalize Type I and Type II assays separately. More elaborate manipulation of quantiles proves to be counterproductive.
Careful selection of preprocessing steps can minimize variance and thus improve statistical power, especially for the detection of the small absolute DNA methylation changes likely associated with complex disease phenotypes. For the convenience of the research community we have created a user-friendly R software package called wateRmelon, downloadable from bioConductor, compatible with the existing methylumi, minfi and IMA packages, that allows others to utilize the same normalization methods and data quality tests on 450K data.
PMCID: PMC3769145  PMID: 23631413
3.  Peripheral blood RNA gene expression profiling in patients with bacterial meningitis 
Objectives: The aim of present study was to find genetic pathways activated during infection with bacterial meningitis (BM) and potentially influencing the course of the infection using genome-wide RNA expression profiling combined with pathway analysis and functional annotation of the differential transcription.
Methods: We analyzed 21 patients with BM hospitalized in 2008. The control group consisted of 18 healthy subjects. The RNA was extracted from whole blood, globin mRNA was depleted and gene expression profiling was performed using GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays which can assess the transcription of 28,869 genes. Gene expression profile data were analyzed using Bioconductor packages and Bayesian modeling. Functional annotation of the enriched gene sets was used to define the altered genetic networks. We also analyzed whether gene expression profiles depend on the clinical course and outcome. In order to verify the microarray results, the expression levels of ten functionally relevant genes with high statistical significance (CD177, IL1R2, IL18R1, IL18RAP, OLFM4, TLR5, CPA3, FCER1A, IL5RA, and IL7R) were confirmed by quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR.
Results: There were 8569 genes displaying differential expression at a significance level of p < 0.05. Following False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction, a total of 5500 genes remained significant at a p-value of < 0.01. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression in 10 selected genes. Functional annotation and network analysis indicated that most of the genes were related to activation of humoral and cellular immune responses (enrichment score 43). Those changes were found in both adults and in children with BM compared to the healthy controls. The gene expression profiles did not significantly depend on the clinical outcome, but there was a strong influence of the specific type of pathogen underlying BM.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there is a very strong activation of immune response at the transcriptional level during BM and that the type of pathogen influences this transcriptional activation.
PMCID: PMC3600829  PMID: 23515576
bacterial meningitis; gene expression profiling; gene networks
4.  Disease-associated epigenetic changes in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;20(24):4786-4796.
Studies of the major psychoses, schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), have traditionally focused on genetic and environmental risk factors, although more recent work has highlighted an additional role for epigenetic processes in mediating susceptibility. Since monozygotic (MZ) twins share a common DNA sequence, their study represents an ideal design for investigating the contribution of epigenetic factors to disease etiology. We performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation on peripheral blood DNA samples obtained from a unique sample of MZ twin pairs discordant for major psychosis. Numerous loci demonstrated disease-associated DNA methylation differences between twins discordant for SZ and BD individually, and together as a combined major psychosis group. Pathway analysis of our top loci highlighted a significant enrichment of epigenetic changes in biological networks and pathways directly relevant to psychiatric disorder and neurodevelopment. The top psychosis-associated, differentially methylated region, significantly hypomethylated in affected twins, was located in the promoter of ST6GALNAC1 overlapping a previously reported rare genomic duplication observed in SZ. The mean DNA methylation difference at this locus was 6%, but there was considerable heterogeneity between families, with some twin pairs showing a 20% difference in methylation. We subsequently assessed this region in an independent sample of postmortem brain tissue from affected individuals and controls, finding marked hypomethylation (>25%) in a subset of psychosis patients. Overall, our data provide further evidence to support a role for DNA methylation differences in mediating phenotypic differences between MZ twins and in the etiology of both SZ and BD.
PMCID: PMC3221539  PMID: 21908516
5.  Peripheral Blood RNA Expression Profiling in Illicit Methcathinone Users Reveals Effect on Immune System 
Methcathinone (ephedrone) is relatively easily accessible for abuse. Its users develop an extrapyramidal syndrome and it is not known if this is caused by methcathinone itself, by side-ingredients (manganese), or both. In the present study we aimed to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. We used microarrays to analyze whole-genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from 20 methcathinone users and 20 matched controls. Gene expression profile data were analyzed by Bayesian modeling and functional annotation. Of 28,869 genes on the microarrays, 326 showed statistically significant differential expression with FDR adjusted p-values below 0.05. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed differential expression for the most of the genes selected for validation. Functional annotation and network analysis indicated activation of a gene network that included immunological disease, cellular movement, and cardiovascular disease functions (enrichment score 42). As HIV and HCV infections were confounding factors, we performed additional stratification of subjects. A similar functional activation of the “immunological disease” category was evident when we compared subjects according to injection status (past versus current users, balanced for HIV and HCV infection). However, this difference was not large therefore the major effect was related to the HIV status of the subjects. Mn–methcathinone abusers have blood RNA expression patterns that mostly reflect their HIV and HCV infections.
PMCID: PMC3268596  PMID: 22303338
ephedrone; gene expression profiling; HIV; intravenous drug abuse; methcathinone; manganese
6.  Utility of the pooling approach as applied to whole genome association scans with high-density Affymetrix microarrays 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:274.
We report an attempt to extend the previously successful approach of combining SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) microarrays and DNA pooling (SNP-MaP) employing high-density microarrays. Whereas earlier studies employed a range of Affymetrix SNP microarrays comprising from 10 K to 500 K SNPs, this most recent investigation used the 6.0 chip which displays 906,600 SNP probes and 946,000 probes for the interrogation of CNVs (copy number variations). The genotyping assay using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array is highly demanding on sample quality due to the small feature size, low redundancy, and lack of mismatch probes.
In the first study published so far using this microarray on pooled DNA, we found that pooled cheek swab DNA could not accurately predict real allele frequencies of the samples that comprised the pools. In contrast, the allele frequency estimates using blood DNA pools were reasonable, although inferior compared to those obtained with previously employed Affymetrix microarrays. However, it might be possible to improve performance by developing improved analysis methods.
Despite the decreasing costs of genome-wide individual genotyping, the pooling approach may have applications in very large-scale case-control association studies. In such cases, our study suggests that high-quality DNA preparations and lower density platforms should be preferred.
PMCID: PMC2984392  PMID: 21040578
7.  Allele-specific methylation in the human genome 
Epigenetics  2010;5(7):578-582.
Across the genome, outside of a small number of known imprinted genes and regions subject to X-inactivation in females, DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides is often assumed to be complementary across both alleles in a diploid cell. However, recent findings suggest the reality is more complex, with the discovery that allele-specific methylation (ASM) is a common feature across the human genome. A key observation is that the majority of ASM is associated with genetic variation in cis, although a noticeable proportion is also non-cis in nature and mediated, for example, by parental origin. ASM appears to be both quantitative, characterized by subtle skewing of DNA methylation between alleles, and heterogeneous, varying across tissues and between individuals. These findings have important implications for complex disease genetics; while cis-mediated ASM provides a functional consequence for non-coding genetic variation, heterogeneous and quantitative ASM complicates the identification of disease-associated loci. We propose that non-cis ASM could contribute toward the “missing heritability” of complex diseases, rendering certain loci hemizygous and masking the direct association between genotype and phenotype. We suggest that the interpretation of results from genome-wide association studies can be improved by the incorporation of epi-allelic information and that in order to fully understand the extent and consequence of ASM in the human genome, a comprehensive sequencing-based analysis of allelic methylation patterns across tissues and individuals is required.
PMCID: PMC3052843  PMID: 20716955
DNA methylation; allelespecific methylation; allele-specific expression; tissue-specific methylation; epigenetics; imprinting; genome-wide association study (GWAS); genetics; complex disease; missing heritability
8.  A Three-Stage Genome-Wide Association Study of General Cognitive Ability: Hunting the Small Effects 
Behavior Genetics  2010;40(6):759-767.
Childhood general cognitive ability (g) is important for a wide range of outcomes in later life, from school achievement to occupational success and life expectancy. Large-scale association studies will be essential in the quest to identify variants that make up the substantial genetic component implicated by quantitative genetic studies. We conducted a three-stage genome-wide association study for general cognitive ability using over 350,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the quantitative extremes of a population sample of 7,900 7-year-old children from the UK Twins Early Development Study. Using two DNA pooling stages to enrich true positives, each of around 1,000 children selected from the extremes of the distribution, and a third individual genotyping stage of over 3,000 children to test for quantitative associations across the normal range, we aimed to home in on genes of small effect. Genome-wide results suggested that our approach was successful in enriching true associations and 28 SNPs were taken forward to individual genotyping in an unselected population sample. However, although we found an enrichment of low P values and identified nine SNPs nominally associated with g (P < 0.05) that show interesting characteristics for follow-up, further replication will be necessary to meet rigorous standards of association. These replications may take advantage of SNP sets to overcome limitations of statistical power. Despite our large sample size and three-stage design, the genes associated with childhood g remain tantalizingly beyond our current reach, providing further evidence for the small effect sizes of individual loci. Larger samples, denser arrays and multiple replications will be necessary in the hunt for the genetic variants that influence human cognitive ability.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10519-010-9350-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2992848  PMID: 20306291
Genetics; Genome-wide association; General cognitive ability; Intelligence; Population sample; Middle childhood
9.  Advancing Paternal Age Is Associated with Deficits in Social and Exploratory Behaviors in the Offspring: A Mouse Model 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(12):e8456.
Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring.
C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group) were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young) and 10 months (old), and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group). Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring.
Principal Findings
The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02) and exploratory (p = 0.02) behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity.
Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors.
PMCID: PMC2794376  PMID: 20041141
10.  A Genome-Wide Association Study of Social and Non-Social Autistic-Like Traits in the General Population Using Pooled DNA, 500 K SNP Microarrays and Both Community and Diagnosed Autism Replication Samples 
Behavior Genetics  2009;40(1):31-45.
Two separate genome-wide association studies were conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with social and nonsocial autistic-like traits. We predicted that we would find SNPs associated with social and non-social autistic-like traits and that different SNPs would be associated with social and nonsocial. In Stage 1, each study screened for allele frequency differences in ~430,000 autosomal SNPs using pooled DNA on microarrays in high-scoring versus low-scoring boys from a general population sample (N = ~400/group). In Stage 2, 22 and 20 SNPs in the social and non-social studies, respectively, were tested for QTL association by individually genotyping an independent community sample of 1,400 boys. One SNP (rs11894053) was nominally associated (P < .05, uncorrected for multiple testing) with social autistic-like traits. When the sample was increased by adding females, 2 additional SNPs were nominally significant (P < .05). These 3 SNPs, however, showed no significant association in transmission disequilibrium analyses of diagnosed ASD families.
PMCID: PMC2797846  PMID: 20012890
Autistic traits; Genome-wide association; Autism; Microarrays; Heritability; Pooling
11.  Using hippocampal microRNA expression differences between mouse inbred strains to characterise miRNA function 
Mammalian Genome  2008;19(7-8):552-560.
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of protein-coding genes at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA). They are involved in the regulation of numerous traits, including developmental timing, apoptosis, immune function, and neuronal development. To better understand how the expression of the miRNAs themselves is regulated, we looked for miRNA expression differences among four mouse inbred strains, A/J, BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J, in one tissue, the hippocampus. A total of 166 miRNA RT-PCR assays were used to screen RNA pools for each strain. Twenty miRNA species that were markedly different between strains were further investigated using eight individual samples per strain, and 11 miRNAs showed significant differences across strains (p < 0.05). This is the first observation of miRNA expression differences across inbred mice strains. We conducted an in silico correlation analysis of the expression of these differentially expressed miRNAs with phenotype data and mRNA expression to better characterise the effects of these miRNAs on both phenotype and the regulation of mRNA expression. This approach has allowed us to nominate miRNAs that have potential roles in anxiety, exploration, and learning and memory.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-008-9116-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2755775  PMID: 18594913
12.  To What Extent is Blood a Reasonable Surrogate for Brain in Gene Expression Studies: Estimation from Mouse Hippocampus and Spleen 
Microarrays are designed to measure genome-wide differences in gene expression. In cases where a tissue is not accessible for analysis (e.g. human brain), it is of interest to determine whether a second, accessible tissue could be used as a surrogate for transcription profiling. Surrogacy has applications in the study of behavioural and neurodegenerative disorders. Comparison between hippocampus and spleen mRNA obtained from a mouse recombinant inbred panel indicates a high degree of correlation between the tissues for genes that display a high heritability of expression level. This correlation is not limited to apparent expression differences caused by sequence polymorphisms in the target sequences and includes both cis and trans genetic effects. A tissue such as blood could therefore give surrogate information on expression in brain for a subset of genes, in particular those co-expressed between the two tissues, which have heritably varying expression.
PMCID: PMC2858613  PMID: 20582281
hippocampus; spleen; recombinant inbred strain; gene expression; surrogacy
13.  Genetics of the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mouse: A Systematic Survey and Online Neurogenomics Resource 
Differences in gene expression in the CNS influence behavior and disease susceptibility. To systematically explore the role of normal variation in expression on hippocampal structure and function, we generated an online microarray database for a diverse panel of strains of mice, including most common inbred strains and numerous recombinant inbred lines ( Using this resource, coexpression networks for families of genes can be generated rapidly to test causal models related to function. The data set is optimized for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and was used to identify over 5500 QTLs that modulate mRNA levels. We describe a wide variety of analyses and novel synthetic approaches that take advantage of this resource, and demonstrate how both the data and associated tools can be applied to the study of gene regulation in the hippocampus and relations to structure and function.
PMCID: PMC2858614  PMID: 20582282
recombinant inbred mice; hippocampus; QTL; genetical genomics; transcript expression
14.  The SNPMaP package for R: a framework for genome-wide association using DNA pooling on microarrays 
Bioinformatics  2008;25(2):281-283.
Summary: Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies using thousands of high-density SNP microarrays are becoming an essential tool in the search for loci related to heritable variation in many phenotypes. However, the cost of GWA remains beyond the reach of many researchers. Fortunately, the majority of statistical power can still be obtained by estimating allele frequencies from DNA pools, reducing the cost to that of tens, rather than thousands of arrays. We present a set of software tools for processing SNPMaP (SNP microarrays and pooling) data from CEL files to Relative Allele Scores in the rich R statistical computing environment.
Availability: The SNPMaP package is available from under the GNU General Public License version 3 or later.
Supplementary information: Additional resources and test datasets are available at
PMCID: PMC2639010  PMID: 19008252
15.  Quantitative traits for the tail suspension test: automation, optimization, and BXD RI mapping 
Mammalian Genome  2007;18(6-7):482-491.
Immobility in the tail suspension test (TST) is considered a model of despair in a stressful situation, and acute treatment with antidepressants reduces immobility. Inbred strains of mouse exhibit widely differing baseline levels of immobility in the TST and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been nominated. The labor of manual scoring and various scoring criteria make obtaining robust data and comparisons across different laboratories problematic. Several studies have validated strain gauge and video analysis methods by comparison with manual scoring. We set out to find objective criteria for automated scoring parameters that maximize the biological information obtained, using a video tracking system on tapes of tail suspension tests of 24 lines of the BXD recombinant inbred panel and the progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. The maximum genetic effect size is captured using the highest time resolution and a low mobility threshold. Dissecting the trait further by comparing genetic association of multiple measures reveals good evidence for loci involved in immobility on chromosomes 4 and 15. These are best seen when using a high threshold for immobility, despite the overall better heritability at the lower threshold. A second trial of the test has greater duration of immobility and a completely different genetic profile. Frequency of mobility is also an independent phenotype, with a distal chromosome 1 locus.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00335-007-9029-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC1998875  PMID: 17619104
16.  Applicability of DNA pools on 500 K SNP microarrays for cost-effective initial screens in genomewide association studies 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:214.
Genetic influences underpinning complex traits are thought to involve multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of small effect size. Detection of such QTL associations requires systematic screening of large numbers of DNA markers within large sample populations. Using pooled DNA on SNP microarrays to screen for allelic frequency differences between groups such as cases and controls (called SNP Microarray and Pooling, or SNP-MaP) has been validated as an efficient solution on both 10 k and 100 k platforms. We demonstrate that this approach can be effectively applied to the truly genomewide Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 500 K Array.
In comparisons between five independent DNA pools (N ~200 per pool) on separate Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 500 K Array sets, we show that, for SNPs with minor allele frequencies > 0.05, the reliability of the rank order of estimated allele frequencies, assessed as the average correlation between allele frequency estimates across the DNA pools, was 0.948 (average mean difference across the five pools = 0.069). Similarly, validity of the SNP-MaP approach was demonstrated by a rank-order correlation of 0.937 (average mean difference = 0.095) between the average DNA pool allele frequency estimates and the allele frequencies of an independent (CEPH) sample of 60 unrelated individually genotyped subjects.
We conclude that SNP-MaP can be extended for use on the Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 500 K Array, providing a cost-effective, reliable and valid initial screen of 500 K SNP microarrays in genomewide association scans.
PMCID: PMC1925094  PMID: 17610740
17.  Genotyping pooled DNA using 100K SNP microarrays: a step towards genomewide association scans 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;34(4):e28.
The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of small effect size that underlie complex traits poses a particular challenge for geneticists due to the large sample sizes and large numbers of genetic markers required for genomewide association scans. An efficient solution for screening purposes is to combine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays and DNA pooling (SNP-MaP), an approach that has been shown to be valid, reliable and accurate in deriving relative allele frequency estimates from pooled DNA for groups such as cases and controls for 10K SNP microarrays. However, in order to conduct a genomewide association study many more SNP markers are needed. To this end, we assessed the validity and reliability of the SNP-MaP method using Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 100K Array set. Interpretable results emerged for 95% of the SNPs (nearly 110 000 SNPs). We found that SNP-MaP allele frequency estimates correlated 0.939 with allele frequencies for 97 605 SNPs that were genotyped individually in an independent population; the correlation was 0.971 for 26 SNPs that were genotyped individually for the 1028 individuals used to construct the DNA pools. We conclude that extending the SNP-MaP method to the Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 100K Array set provides a useful screen of >100 000 SNP markers for QTL association scans.
PMCID: PMC1368655  PMID: 16478714
18.  A central resource for accurate allele frequency estimation from pooled DNA genotyped on DNA microarrays 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;33(3):e25.
Analysing pooled DNA on microarrays is an efficient way to genotype hundreds of individuals for thousands of markers for genome-wide association. Although direct comparison of case and control fluorescence scores is possible, correction for differential hybridization of alleles is important, particularly for rare single nucleotide polymorphisms. Such correction relies on heterozygous fluorescence scores and requires the genotyping of hundreds of individuals to obtain sufficient estimates of the correction factor, completely negating any benefit gained by pooling samples. We explore the effect of differential hybridization on test statistics and provide a solution to this problem in the form of a central resource for the accumulation of heterozygous fluorescence scores, allowing accurate allele frequency estimation at no extra cost.
PMCID: PMC549427  PMID: 15701753
19.  Interspersed repetitive sequence (IRS)–PCR for typing of whole genome radiation hybrid panels 
Nucleic Acids Research  2000;28(2):e7.
The typing of a radiation hybrid (RH) panel is generally achieved using a unique primer pair for each marker. We here describe a complementing approach utilizing IRS–PCR. Advantages of this technology include the use of a single universal primer to specify any locus, the rapid typing of RH lines by hybridization, and the conservative use of hybrid DNA. The technology allows the mapping of a clone without the requirement for STS generation. To test the technique, we have mapped 48 BAC clones derived from mouse chromosome 12 which we mostly identified using complex probes. As mammalian genomes are repeat-rich, the technology can easily be adapted to species other than mouse.
PMCID: PMC102539  PMID: 10606675
20.  Putative Transcriptomic Biomarkers in the Inflammatory Cytokine Pathway Differentiate Major Depressive Disorder Patients from Control Subjects and Bipolar Disorder Patients 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91076.
Mood disorders consist of two etiologically related, but distinctly treated illnesses, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD). These disorders share similarities in their clinical presentation, and thus show high rates of misdiagnosis. Recent research has revealed significant transcriptional differences within the inflammatory cytokine pathway between MDD patients and controls, and between BPD patients and controls, suggesting this pathway may possess important biomarker properties. This exploratory study attempts to identify disorder-specific transcriptional biomarkers within the inflammatory cytokine pathway, which can distinguish between control subjects, MDD patients and BPD patients. This is achieved using RNA extracted from subject blood and applying synthesized complementary DNA to quantitative PCR arrays containing primers for 87 inflammation-related genes. Initially, we use ANOVA to test for transcriptional differences in a ‘discovery cohort’ (total n = 90) and then we use t-tests to assess the reliability of any identified transcriptional differences in a ‘validation cohort’ (total n = 35). The two most robust and reliable biomarkers identified across both the discovery and validation cohort were Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) which was consistently transcribed higher amongst MDD patients relative to controls and BPD patients, and C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) which was consistently more lowly transcribed amongst MDD patients relative to controls. Results detailed here provide preliminary evidence that transcriptional measures within inflammation-related genes might be useful in aiding clinical diagnostic decision-making processes. Future research should aim to replicate findings detailed in this exploratory study in a larger medication-free sample and examine whether identified biomarkers could be used prospectively to aid clinical diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3949789  PMID: 24618828
21.  Microarrays 
Developmental Science  2007;10(1):19-23.
Microarrays are revolutionizing genetics by making it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of DNA markers and to assess the expression (RNA transcripts) of all of the genes in the genome. Microarrays are slides the size of a postage stamp that contain millions of DNA sequences to which single-stranded DNA or RNA can hybridize. This miniaturization requires little DNA or RNA and makes the method fast and inexpensive; multiple assays of each target make the method highly accurate. DNA microarrays with hundreds of thousands of DNA markers have made it possible to conduct systematic scans of the entire genome to identify genetic associations with complex disorders or dimensions likely to be influenced by many genes of small effect size. RNA microarrays can provide snapshots of gene expression across all of the genes in the genome at any time in any tissue, which has far-reaching applications such as structural and functional ‘genetic neuroimaging’ and providing a biological basis for understanding environmental influence.
PMCID: PMC2776927  PMID: 17181694
22.  DNA methylation at the Igf2/H19 imprinting control region is associated with cerebellum mass in outbred mice 
Molecular Brain  2012;5:42.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) is a paternally expressed imprinted gene regulating fetal growth, playing an integral role in the development of many tissues including the brain. The parent-of-origin specific expression of Igf2 is largely controlled by allele-specific DNA methylation at CTCF-binding sites in the imprinting control region (ICR), located immediately upstream of the neighboring H19 gene. Previously we reported evidence of a negative correlation between DNA methylation in this region and cerebellum weight in humans.
We quantified cerebellar DNA methylation across all four CTCF binding sites spanning the murine Igf2/H19 ICR in an outbred population of Heterogeneous Stock (HS) mice (n = 48). We observe that DNA methylation at the second and third CTCF binding sites in the Igf2/H19 ICR shows a negative relationship with cerebellar mass, reflecting the association observed in human post-mortem cerebellum tissue.
Given the important role of the cerebellum in motor control and cognition, and the link between structural cerebellar abnormalities and neuropsychiatric phenotypes, the identification of epigenetic factors associated with cerebellum growth and development may provide important insights about the etiology of psychiatric disorders.
PMCID: PMC3541153  PMID: 23216893
Igf2; H19; Epigenetics; DNA methylation; Cerebellum; Brain; Mouse; Genotype; Genomic imprinting
23.  Genetic variation in hippocampal microRNA expression differences in C57BL/6 J X DBA/2 J (BXD) recombinant inbred mouse strains 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:476.
miRNAs are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation that play a major role in normal biological functions and diseases. Little is currently known about how expression of miRNAs is regulated. We surveyed variation in miRNA abundance in the hippocampus of mouse inbred strains, allowing us to take a genetic approach to the study of miRNA regulation, which is novel for miRNAs. The BXD recombinant inbred panel is a very well characterized genetic reference panel which allows quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of miRNA abundance and detection of correlates in a large store of brain and behavioural phenotypes.
We found five suggestive trans QTLs for the regulation of miRNAs investigated. Further analysis of these QTLs revealed two genes, Tnik and Phf17, under the miR-212 regulatory QTLs, whose expression levels were significantly correlated with miR-212 expression. We found that miR-212 expression is correlated with cocaine-related behaviour, consistent with a reported role for this miRNA in the control of cocaine consumption. miR-31 is correlated with anxiety and alcohol related behaviours. KEGG pathway analysis of each miRNA’s expression correlates revealed enrichment of pathways including MAP kinase, cancer, long-term potentiation, axonal guidance and WNT signalling.
The BXD reference panel allowed us to establish genetic regulation and characterize biological function of specific miRNAs. QTL analysis enabled detection of genetic loci that regulate the expression of these miRNAs. eQTLs that regulate miRNA abundance are a new mechanism by which genetic variation influences brain and behaviour. Analysis of one of these QTLs revealed a gene, Tnik, which may regulate the expression of a miRNA, a molecular pathway and a behavioural phenotype. Evidence of genetic covariation of miR-212 abundance and cocaine related behaviours is strongly supported by previous functional studies, demonstrating the value of this approach for discovery of new functional roles and downstream processes regulated by miRNA.
PMCID: PMC3496628  PMID: 22974136
24.  Reduced Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviours in the Circadian Period Mutant Mouse Afterhours 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38263.
Disruption of the circadian rhythm is a key feature of bipolar disorder. Variation in genes encoding components of the molecular circadian clock has been associated with increased risk of the disorder in clinical populations. Similarly in animal models, disruption of the circadian clock can result in altered mood and anxiety which resemble features of human mania; including hyperactivity, reduced anxiety and reduced depression-like behaviour. One such mutant, after hours (Afh), an ENU-derived mutant with a mutation in a recently identified circadian clock gene Fbxl3, results in a disturbed (long) circadian rhythm of approximately 27 hours.
Anxiety, exploratory and depression-like behaviours were evaluated in Afh mice using the open-field, elevated plus maze, light-dark box, holeboard and forced swim test. To further validate findings for human mania, polymorphisms in the human homologue of FBXL3, genotyped by three genome wide case control studies, were tested for association with bipolar disorder.
Principal Findings
Afh mice showed reduced anxiety- and depression-like behaviour in all of the behavioural tests employed, and some evidence of increased locomotor activity in some tests. An analysis of three separate human data sets revealed a gene wide association between variation in FBXL3 and bipolar disorder (P = 0.009).
Our results are consistent with previous studies of mutants with extended circadian periods and suggest that disruption of FBXL3 is associated with mania-like behaviours in both mice and humans.
PMCID: PMC3376117  PMID: 22719873
25.  Functional annotation of the human brain methylome identifies tissue-specific epigenetic variation across brain and blood 
Genome Biology  2012;13(6):R43.
Dynamic changes to the epigenome play a critical role in establishing and maintaining cellular phenotype during differentiation, but little is known about the normal methylomic differences that occur between functionally distinct areas of the brain. We characterized intra- and inter-individual methylomic variation across whole blood and multiple regions of the brain from multiple donors.
Distinct tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation were identified, with a highly significant over-representation of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (TS-DMRs) observed at intragenic CpG islands and low CG density promoters. A large proportion of TS-DMRs were located near genes that are differentially expressed across brain regions. TS-DMRs were significantly enriched near genes involved in functional pathways related to neurodevelopment and neuronal differentiation, including BDNF, BMP4, CACNA1A, CACA1AF, EOMES, NGFR, NUMBL, PCDH9, SLIT1, SLITRK1 and SHANK3. Although between-tissue variation in DNA methylation was found to greatly exceed between-individual differences within any one tissue, we found that some inter-individual variation was reflected across brain and blood, indicating that peripheral tissues may have some utility in epidemiological studies of complex neurobiological phenotypes.
This study reinforces the importance of DNA methylation in regulating cellular phenotype across tissues, and highlights genomic patterns of epigenetic variation across functionally distinct regions of the brain, providing a resource for the epigenetics and neuroscience research communities.
PMCID: PMC3446315  PMID: 22703893

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