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1.  Combined sequencing of mRNA and DNA from human embryonic stem cells 
Genomics Data  2016;8:131-133.
Combined transcriptome and whole genome sequencing of the same ultra-low input sample down to single cells is a rapidly evolving approach for the analysis of rare cells. Besides stem cells, rare cells originating from tissues like tumor or biopsies, circulating tumor cells and cells from early embryonic development are under investigation. Herein we describe a universal method applicable for the analysis of minute amounts of sample material (150 to 200 cells) derived from sub-colony structures from human embryonic stem cells. The protocol comprises the combined isolation and separate amplification of poly(A) mRNA and whole genome DNA followed by next generation sequencing. Here we present a detailed description of the method developed and an overview of the results obtained for RNA and whole genome sequencing of human embryonic stem cells, sequencing data is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE69471.
PMCID: PMC4880790  PMID: 27275414
Next generation sequencing; RNA and whole-genome sequencing; Ultra-low input sequencing; Single cell; Embryonic stem cells
2.  Combined ultra-low input mRNA and whole-genome sequencing of human embryonic stem cells 
BMC Genomics  2015;16:925.
Next Generation Sequencing has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool in the field of genomics and transcriptomics. With recent development it is nowadays possible to analyze ultra-low input sample material down to single cells. Nevertheless, investigating such sample material often limits the analysis to either the genome or transcriptome. We describe here a combined analysis of both types of nucleic acids from the same sample material.
The method described enables the combined preparation of amplified cDNA as well as amplified whole-genome DNA from an ultra-low input sample material derived from a sub-colony of in-vitro cultivated human embryonic stem cells. cDNA is prepared by the application of oligo-dT coupled magnetic beads for mRNA capture, first strand synthesis and 3’-tailing followed by PCR. Whole-genome amplified DNA is prepared by Phi29 mediated amplification. Illumina sequencing is applied to short fragment libraries prepared from the amplified samples.
We developed a protocol which enables the combined analysis of the genome as well as the transcriptome by Next Generation Sequencing from ultra-low input samples. The protocol was evaluated by sequencing sub-colony structures from human embryonic stem cells containing 150 to 200 cells. The method can be adapted to any available sequencing system.
To our knowledge, this is the first report where sub-colonies of human embryonic stem cells have been analyzed both at the genomic as well as transcriptome level. The method of this proof of concept study may find useful practical applications for cases where only a limited number of cells are available, e.g. for tissues samples from biopsies, tumor spheres, circulating tumor cells and cells from early embryonic development. The results we present demonstrate that a combined analysis of genomic DNA and messenger RNA from ultra-low input samples is feasible and can readily be applied to other cellular systems with limited material available.
PMCID: PMC4643517  PMID: 26564201
Next generation sequencing; RNA-seq; Whole-genome sequencing; Ultra-low input sequencing; Single cell; Pluripotency; Embryonic stem cells
3.  Targeted enrichment of genomic DNA regions for next-generation sequencing 
Briefings in Functional Genomics  2011;10(6):374-386.
In this review, we discuss the latest targeted enrichment methods and aspects of their utilization along with second-generation sequencing for complex genome analysis. In doing so, we provide an overview of issues involved in detecting genetic variation, for which targeted enrichment has become a powerful tool. We explain how targeted enrichment for next-generation sequencing has made great progress in terms of methodology, ease of use and applicability, but emphasize the remaining challenges such as the lack of even coverage across targeted regions. Costs are also considered versus the alternative of whole-genome sequencing which is becoming ever more affordable. We conclude that targeted enrichment is likely to be the most economical option for many years to come in a range of settings.
PMCID: PMC3245553  PMID: 22121152
targeted enrichment; next-generation sequencing; genome partitioning; exome; genetic variation
4.  The application of massively parallel sequencing technologies in diagnostics 
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is rapidly evolving and is starting to be utilized by the clinical field as well as diagnostics. We describe major recent advances that have come about as a result of the application of MPS in the biomedical field and the first approaches in medical genetics that have made use of MPS. Without any doubt, MPS has proven to be a very powerful technique. To unravel the capabilities of MPS for patient care, the most important aspect for the acceptance of MPS within clinics and diagnostics is to guarantee that the large amount of data undergoes vitally important analyses and interpretation and is securely managed.
PMCID: PMC2990631  PMID: 21173878
5.  Proteomic Shifts in Embryonic Stem Cells with Gene Dose Modifications Suggest the Presence of Balancer Proteins in Protein Regulatory Networks 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(11):e1218.
Large numbers of protein expression changes are usually observed in mouse models for neurodegenerative diseases, even when only a single gene was mutated in each case. To study the effect of gene dose alterations on the cellular proteome, we carried out a proteomic investigation on murine embryonic stem cells that either overexpressed individual genes or displayed aneuploidy over a genomic region encompassing 14 genes. The number of variant proteins detected per cell line ranged between 70 and 110, and did not correlate with the number of modified genes. In cell lines with single gene mutations, up and down-regulated proteins were always in balance in comparison to parental cell lines regarding number as well as concentration of differentially expressed proteins. In contrast, dose alteration of 14 genes resulted in an unequal number of up and down-regulated proteins, though the balance was kept at the level of protein concentration. We propose that the observed protein changes might partially be explained by a proteomic network response. Hence, we hypothesize the existence of a class of “balancer” proteins within the proteomic network, defined as proteins that buffer or cushion a system, and thus oppose multiple system disturbances. Through database queries and resilience analysis of the protein interaction network, we found that potential balancer proteins are of high cellular abundance, possess a low number of direct interaction partners, and show great allelic variation. Moreover, balancer proteins contribute more heavily to the network entropy, and thus are of high importance in terms of system resilience. We propose that the “elasticity” of the proteomic regulatory network mediated by balancer proteins may compensate for changes that occur under diseased conditions.
PMCID: PMC2077926  PMID: 18043732

Results 1-5 (5)